Schneider Electric & Enerdata: Prospective Analysis of Energy Demand in Key Sectors and Contribution to Carbon Neutrality
Enerdata has been appointed by Schneider Electric to support the long-term evolution analysis of energy consumption, worldwide and in key countries. For this study, the focus is set on possible disruptions in all end-uses of the different economic sectors, with a specific evaluation of contribution of electrification and digitalisation.
Enerdata extends its support for ADEME in the project "Energy resource forecasting". In a context of climate emergency combined with other environmental issues (materials, soils, etc.) and the 2050 carbon neutrality target, the new features of this work include:
- Considering several carbon neutrality scenarios with contrasted trajectories and conditions for implementation
- Carrying out a comparative analysis of these scenarios
- Considering the energy/GHG aspects, but also resources, biomass and soils, while ensuring the consistency of the scenarios and the assumptions made by each of the stakeholders in the modelling
This project will lead to a publication in autumn 2021 to feed the presidential debate. This publication of the overall results will be followed by specific publications by sector.
This project, led by the 2050 Pathways Platform, aims to support Morocco in developing its long-term climate strategy.
Two phases are planned:
- Elaboration of a long-term vision: collect the opinions of all stakeholders, see what their expectations were in terms of low-carbon development.
- Development of a low-carbon strategy (upcoming phase).
Within this framework, Enerdata, as technical partner, organised sectoral workshops with Moroccan stakeholders.
At the end of 2020, in order to concretely show Enerdata's commitment to society during a very difficult time, Management decided to donate €10,000 to associations and charities. In March 2021, a call for applications supported by the company's employees was organised in order to select projects and/or associations meeting certain eligibility criteria.
Our global energy forecasts service was implemented with the new following updates:
All EnerFuture scenarios are now taking in account Covid-19 impacts through a dedicated 5-year projection tool. In addition to this, Hydrogen consumption data are made available for each final demand sector.
The Short-term macro-economic forecasts, the new renewable energies focus, including series on demand, supply and indicators are also included now. Country snapshots have been updated as well, and PDF exports by country are now available too. And at last, we improved our intuitive user interface with new series.
The scenario evaluation study will support the International Energy Agency in developing two energy and emissions scenarios for the Sahel region until 2030. The study will focus on Senegal and the G5 Sahel (Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad), countries facing numerous socioeconomic challenges, including very limited access to energy, and in particular electricity, despite large resources for clean energy. Two scenarios will be provided: a Stated Policies Scenario and a Sustainable Development Scenario, which Enerdata will prepare and analyse for the IEA. The scenario comparison will allow to assess which additional policies could contribute to the countries’ economic development while ensuring a wider access to clean energy in the Sahel region.
Enerdata will be using its EnerNEO model in this study, which will feed into a dedicated report and event of the IEA on clean energy transitions in Sahel countries later this year.
Enerdata is currently working with ADEME's (the ecological transition agency) Transport and Mobility Department to develop a new tool for modelling energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector in France up to 2060.
Ultimately, the tool will cover all transport (passenger and freight transport, domestic and international) with a detailed representation of the energy consumption and GHG emissions of the various modes of transport, types of vehicle and types of engine. The tool will allow the simulation and comparison of up to five scenarios.
This project is part of ADEME's ongoing work on multi-sectoral prospective scenarios (Prospective Energie Ressource 2050) in which Enerdata is involved.
This year is cause for celebration at Enerdata, as we can look back at 30 years of energy insights. And look forward to many more years of analysis and consulting on energy and climate issues!
To celebrate this milestone in a social-distancing approved manner, the whole team headed to the mountains surrounding our headquarters for a half-day of fun (and competition) in the snow.
After studies performed in 2018 and 2020, the Directorate-General for Energy of the European Commission has awarded a new contract to Enerdata and its partner Trinomics to continue the monitoring of energy subsidies in the EU27. The outcomes of this study are essential because the European Commission intends to use them in their reports on energy subsidies and specifically fossil fuel subsidies to comply with governance requirements.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Four Largest World Emitters: Past Performance and Future Scenarios for China, U.S.A., Europe and India
This article by Enerdata senior energy modelling expert Sylvain Cail and emeritus CNRS energy transition researcher Patrick Criqui aims to clarify the magnitude of the climate challenge we face globally and the role that the four largest greenhouse gas emitters – China, the U.S.A., the European Union and India – could potentially play, if they decided on a “deep collaboration”. The paper focuses on the abatement of CO2 emissions, which represent two thirds of total GHG emissions.
Enerdata continues its collaboration with the National Agency for Energy Management (ANME) of Tunisia with a new project on the follow-up of the Tunisian nationally determined contribution (NDC).
More specifically, this project, financed by the German development agency GIZ, should make it possible to develop a methodology for monitoring and evaluating NDC implementation in the energy sector in Tunisia, in accordance with the requirements of the Paris Agreement. The methodology will then be applied to measure the progress made in the energy sector over the period 2015-2020. The mission should also make it possible to recommend the necessary improvements to the EnerInfo database of ANME to implement this methodology, and thus improve the transparency of accounting for greenhouse gases emissions of the NDC in the energy sector.
Finally, the project includes a capacity building component for stakeholders on the different aspects of the proposed methodology.
BEIS (UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy) has selected Enerdata to help update its official carbon price forecasts to be used for policy appraisal and modelling purposes. Enerdata will build a business-as-usual energy and emissions scenario with the POLES-Enerdata model, aligned with BEIS’s internal assumptions on fossil fuel prices and sectoral emissions.
This scenario will be used as a basis to run carbon price sensitivities and produce sectoral and technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), exploring deep decarbonisation and net-zero emission pathways through the BEIS Carbon Price Model (BCPM) to model possible futures of the UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK ETS).
Enerdata has collaborated since 2007 with BEIS (formerly DECC) on the update of MAC curves used as inputs of two long-term energy and emissions models of the department.
Enerdata has a new service for robust power price forecast and analysis, offering the most solid alternative to existing solutions. European Power Markets Outlook is a ready-to-use, cost-effective and reliable information service with direct and instant access. It deep dives into every country's market leveraging a proven optimisation model and a recognised power expertise.
European Power Markets Outlook’s comprehensive approach presents the full picture on the power sector at national level, including main market drivers, and draws detailed market price projections to 2050. The service covers all main European countries and markets.
European Power Markets Outlook has been codeveloped with our partner Compass Lexecon.
The service also features a premium option with hourly granularity, captured prices and additional scenarios.
Looking for more information on European Power Markets Outlook? Check out our product page, which includes all features, complete geographical coverage, methodology, and previews.
Enerdata is developing its renewable energy offer with the most in-depth RES auctions database with worldwide coverage.
Developing their Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the main levers used by countries to achieve their ever increasing GHG emissions reduction targets, including, for many of them, carbon neutrality pledges.
Assessment of the implications of a reinforced EU emissions reduction target on the French climate ambition
Enerdata has been selected by the French Ministry for the Ecological Transition to analyse the impacts, for individual Member States and France especially, of the newly proposed 55% GHG emissions reduction target at the EU level.
POLES-Enerdata is a recognised simulation model of the global energy system, featuring detailed representation of the mechanisms operating in the energy consumption sectors, in energy supply, including power generation, in energy prices, and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The model allows to understand long-term trends induced by specific energy and climate policies at global, regional and country level.
In October 2020, Enerdata started a mission on energy poverty for the French National Energy Poverty Observatory (ONPE) and the French Ecology Transition Agency (ADEME). It will produce a brochure on good practices in the fight against energy poverty in Europe.
As part of a study financed by the French Development Agency (AFD), Enerdata will provide the Pakistani Ministry of Climate Change and the Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) with support on the elaboration of long-term emissions trajectories, which will be used as inputs for the revision of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of Pakistan.
Enerdata contributes to the modelling of the residential sector on behalf of ADEME.
This study consists in developing their ANTONIO modelling tool, which is used for energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions in the residential sector.
Energy storage contribution to the security of the electricity supply in Europe
Enerdata participated in a European Commission study on energy storage. The analysis presents the current state of play of storage technologies, then proceeds to identify the need for various types of flexibility solutions at the 2030 and 2050 horizons...
Enerdata was recently awarded a new contract with the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA). We will inform its International Climate Cooperation department about most recent developments in energy markets worldwide.
Enerdata is assisting ADEME, the French Ecological Transition Agency, in the development of carbon neutrality scenarios in France. The mission consists in accompanying the agency in its work to consolidate the sectoral prospective work carried out by its departments at various scales and with multiple tools, and to ensure the overall consistency of the scenarios.
We have recently developed a new addition to our Power Plant Tracker service. We are now sending daily changes notifications by email. Thanks to a fine-tuned market watch process, this feature provides information on the latest power facilities updated in the database.
Enerdata contributes to the elaboration of Morocco's long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy
Enerdata’s study, financed by the 2050 Pathways Platform, will focus in particular on a series of sectoral and thematic consultations (electricity, industry, transport, construction, agriculture, waste and forests) with the main driving forces of the Moroccan economy and society.
This project, funded by the Indonesian Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas) and AFD, the French development agency, aims at determining a long-term low-carbon and resilient development strategy in the industry sector.
Dear partners, dear customers,
We hope that you and your loved ones are in good health.
Following the authorities’ announcements to curb the development of the Covid-19 epidemic, Enerdata has put into place several measures in order to comply with the guidelines and to take care of its staff while ensuring the continuity of our activities for our clients and partners.
Mexico just adopted the revision of its Transition Strategy to Promote the Use of Cleaner Technologies and Fuels under the Energy Transition Law (Ley de Transición Energética – LTE). Enerdata assisted CONUEE, the national energy efficiency agency of Mexico, in defining the energy demand scenarios and targets described in the strategy using a Mexican version of its MedPro model, with the support of ADEME, the French energy efficiency agency and AFD, the French development agency.
Enerdata has recently won a new contract from the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the African Energy Commission aiming at improving the existing African Energy Information System (AEIS).
Enerdata has been contracted by IRENA through a public procurement process to enhance its analytical framework in the field of energy efficiency and the synergies with renewable energy. More specifically, Enerdata will upgrade IRENA’s REmap tool to explicitly model energy efficiency measures and their likely interactions with national energy systems.
We organized a first in-house Climate Fresco at Enerdata on November 5, hosted by our analyst Paco Bailly. The Climate Fresco is a participatory workshop that allows participants to exchange and deepen their knowledge on the causes and consequences of climate change.
Enerdata continues its collaboration with the Tunisian National Agency for Energy Management (ANME). We are starting a new study funded by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as part of the project "Support for carbon pricing for NDC implementation and low-carbon transition".
The Observatory for the Security of Energy Trade Flows and Materials is coordinated by the Institute for International and Strategic Relations (IRIS), in consortium with Enerdata and the consulting firm Cassini, under a contract with the General Directorate for International Relations and Strategy (DGRIS) of the French Ministry of the Armed Forces.
Enerdata is pleased to collaborate with the Environment and Energy Encyclopedias. These two websites have been developed under the aegis of the University of Grenoble-Alpes in order to make high-quality scientific articles on environmental and energy issues accessible to the general public.
Enerdata is committed to contributing to a more sustainable and equitable world. By adopting a responsible and committed corporate strategy, we want our company and all our stakeholders, including our employees, customers, partners and shareholders, to participate fully in the sustainable development challenges.
Enerdata Supports the Algerian Ministry of Energy in a Study Funded by the French Development Agency
Enerdata has been selected by the French Development Agency (AFD) to complete a study for the Ministry of Energy of Algeria comprising modelling and a long-term energy perspective on the Algerian energy sector.
We are happy to announce the release of the 2019 edition of Global Energy Trends, one of our most anticipated annual publications, and its accompanying webinar.
Each year, our analysts produce this comprehensive, independent study of the past year’s energy market trends and resulting emissions in the G20.
SNCF has decided to develop an ambitious zero-net-emissions roadmap and commit to participating in France’s ZEN 2050 carbon-neutrality objective. Enerdata will assist in designing GHG emissions reduction trajectories for Groupe SNCF’s various activities around the world.
EnerOutlook – our free web-application based on our professional, 2040 forecasting from EnerFuture – is now completely updated with the latest available data, new data series and redesigned scenarios.
Anyone can use EnerOutlook to look up useful energy statistics and browse interactive maps and graphs in three languages.
If France is to achieve carbon-neutrality by the middle of the century, what lifestyle changes would be required of the French people?
What adaptations will be needed in major economic sectors?
What actions need to be taken in the short-term?
We recently traveled to Beirut, Lebanon, to co-host a technical workshop presenting a uniform methodology for collecting energy data. The purpose of this first workshop was to enable Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Lebanon to calculate reliable energy efficiency indicators by sectors.
The workshop was part of Enerdata’s new contract with ADEME, in the framework of the MEDENER network.
Our free web-application that’s based on our professional, 2040 energy forecasting is now available in Korean and Japanese. You can now use EnerOutlook to look up useful energy statistics and browse interactive maps and graphs in three languages.
Here at Enerdata, we’ve been busy updating and redesigning some of our main services this spring. The latest overhaul is that of Key Energy News, which is now called Key Energy Intelligence.
Key Energy Intelligence is an analyst-curated daily email brief that provides global energy news selected by energy experts, plus independent analyses and a historical energy news archive.
The Indian Ocean Commission has mandated Enerdata to help create an energy information system for the five island nations of Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Reunion and Comoros.
This is an important first step in the development of a Regional Energy Observatory in the Indian Ocean.
EU Directorate-General for Energy Renews Confidence in Enerdata
Enerdata has been selected by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Energy to furnish data and analyses on the development of renewable energy around the world.
Renewable energy development is a major element of the EU’s strategy in the fight against climate change – a fight in which the European Commission has positioned itself as a leader. Within this context, Enerdata’s mission will be to provide the Directorate-General a collection of data and analyses that will allow them to stay up-to-date on the specifics of renewable energy development. This information will feed into the European Commission’s Energy Market Observation System, or EMOS.
This is Enerdata’s third consecutive contract for EMOS (after those agreed upon in 2010 and 2014). We at Enerdata are proud to see this as a sign of confidence in the quality of our services.
New Odyssee-Mure Datatools Added and Updated
Under the EU’s ODYSSEE-MURE project, Enerdata has developed and maintained six user-friendly data tools to help our users, including policy makers and energy economists, analyze energy efficiency changes and improvements in all EU countries, Switzerland, Serbia and Norway.
The tools present the latest available energy data and drivers for each country, all gathered in one database. Two of the newest tools developed and updated by Enerdata this fall are Combined Scoreboard and Decomposition.
The Combined Scoreboard tool scores each EU country for its energy efficiency levels, improvements and policies, allowing users to see how countries compare in each category and across different sectors.
The Decomposition tool allows users to assess the specific changes in energy use by sector and country since 2000. It also shows in a clear, graphical format what has caused the changes, and to what extent efficiency gains make up for increased consumption and other changes.
The French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement, or AFD) aims to fight poverty and promote sustainable development all over the world. The AFD’s strategy focuses on climate change and supporting low-carbon trajectories in the developing countries where it operates.
Enerdata is tasked with compiling Country Climate Factsheets for the AFD, in cooperation with partners Solagro and EcoAct.
Electricity Demand and Load Curves in New Caledonia - Enercal
Enerdata is working with ENERCAL – the TSO (transmission system operator) in New Caledonia – to elaborate electricity demand forecasts through 2040, as well as associated load curves.
As a remote island territory, New Caledonia is not interconnected with other electricity grids, which means the power system manager faces significant challenges. Electricity demand is growing steadily, and three-quarters of demand currently comes from industry.
ENERCAL will use the results of the Enerdata study to create a Transmission Network Development Plan for New Caledonia and to elaborate the basis of the next multiyear investment plan.
EnerNEO development for Pakistan’s NDCs moves forward
The current work is in partnership with the German Society for International Cooperation (Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, or GIZ).
The first phase of EnerNEO development began in 2017, financed by the French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement or AFD), and the next phase, also in collaboration with AFD, could start in early 2019. This new phase would aim to design a user-friendly tool covering complete energy- and GHG-emissions trajectories for Pakistan, including agriculture, land use and forest emissions. This would be something that has never been done before in the country.
Energy Transition Monitoring: a new step forward
We recently developed a process to monitor the energy transition in different countries, called EnerTraM.
A new project is now launched with the French Development Agency (AFD) to deploy this approach in 10 key emerging countries.
Ademe will develop LCoE forecasts
In Numeri and Enerdata have been selected by Ademe to deal with LCoE of renewable technologies in France. The project aims to collect data on the actual LCoE in France over the years 2017 and 2018 (In Numeri), comparing these outputs with three countries (Germany, China, The United-States) and to develop LCoE forecasts to 2050 for all the studied technologies (Enerdata).
Enerdata has contributed to the Renewables 2018 Global Status Report, a comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy published by REN21, the renewable energy policy network.
The aim of this globally recognized publication is to help drive the energy transition with renewable energies.
ADEME, in partnership with the Prefecture, the REV3 Mission, the Regional Council and the Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry, selected Enerdata and Energies Demain to provide new scenarios to extend the ambitions of the Third Industrial Revolution (called REV3), a new economic model based on the Energy and Ecological transition, to the new region Hauts-de-France.
Start of a new project with the Ministry of Energy of the United Arab Emirates
Enerdata is pleased to announce a second phase of a project with the Ministry of Energy of the UAE. It consists in developing an energy management system to collect and manage energy data, and calculate energy balances. Enerdata will develop several IT tools (databases, interfaces including business intelligence tools, etc.) to help the Ministry manage energy data coming from the main stakeholders in the country.
The 1st phase was achieved in 2016, at the same time as Enerdata also developed a specific modelling tool (“EnerNEO”) for the MoE, designed to build and analyse different scenarios for energy policy development.
We are very honoured to continue to develop this partnership and support the MoE in several key initiatives!
Enerdata organized a 3 days training on the energy demand model Medpro at CONUEE (Energy Efficiency Agency) in Mexico with the support of AFD (Agence Française du Développement) and ADEME.
New step on energy scenarios and MAC curves in our cooperation with the UK Ministry of Energy
Enerdata has been selected by the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to provide them with Business As Usual (BAU) emissions scenarios and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs). Since 2007, the UK ministry in charge of energy has been using Enerdata’s forecasts to update two internal models of the ministry.
In a first phase, the Global Carbon Finance (GLOCAF) model is updated with most recent BAU scenarios and MAC curves to evaluate the economic impacts of climate action and NDCs of the Paris Agreement.
The second phase of the assignment consists in updating input data of the Carbon Price Model (BCPM), which is employed to estimate future carbon prices under the EU-ETS to be used in modelling activities and for policy appraisal.
Enerdata contributes to a study for the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy
Enerdata co-authors an assessment of the impacts and feasibility of increasing the share of renewables beyond the proposed target of 27% for 2030.
Launch of collaboration with IRENA on renewable energy roadmaps
Enerdata is pleased to announce a forthcoming project with the IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). Our analysts will assist the agency in the preparation and the elaboration of its renewable energy roadmaps worldwide.
New energy demand scenarios in Spain
The Spanish Energy Agency (IDAE) is currently building new energy demand scenarios, leveraging the Enerdata expertise and MedPro bottom-up demand model.
Regional climate policies leverage energy demand modelling
Enerdata is currently supporting two French regions (Occitanie & Hauts de France) in their 2050 prospective analysis. Scenarios include ambitious targets on energy demand reduction and on penetration of local renewable energy sources.
Enerdata leverages its tools such as MedPro to carry out the modelling of these regional energy systems.
I4CE, IFPEN and Enerdata published a policy brief on the reform of the EU ETS for the post-2020 period.
Produced within the framework of the research program COPEC II and provides a syntehsis of key results from a report that will be published later in October 2017.
Enerdata contributed to a project for the European Commission DG Energy aiming to build early estimates on yearly energy data.
The early estimates were produced in August 2016, 6 months before the publication of Eurostat’s official 2015 energy data. They were calculated for all the EU countries for the main energy balance components as well as the renewable energy share in gross final energy consumption and in gross electricity generation.
Modelling the Tunisian Solar Plan using MedPro
The Tunisian National Agency for Energy Management (ANME), with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), selected Enerdata to help modelling the Tunisian Solar Plan using the MedPro model.
Enerdata selected by the French Development Agency (AFD) for a project with the Pakistani Ministry of Water and Power
Enerdata just started working for the Pakistani Ministry of Water and Power to deliver an energy and climate planning tool (Ener-NEO) as well as 4 long term energy sector carbon emissions scenarios.
This technical assistance is financed and supervised by the French Development Agency (AFD) as part of a budgetary program to support the Government of Pakistan 's Energy reform.
Enerdata selected to provide the UK BEIS Department with emissions scenarios and MACC
Enerdata is launching a new project this month to provide the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) with Business As Usual (BAU) emissions scenarios and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs). Since 2007, the UK ministry in charge of energy has commissioned Enerdata to produce such data to update two internal models of the ministry.
Enerdata is a partner of the EU Building Stock Observatory project alongside BPIE, ECN, Ecofys, Seven and the support of 20 other organizations.
This project aims at providing a comprehensive snapshot of the building stock characteristics in Europe.
Leveraging its new Monthly Energy Database, Enerdata unveils its latest analysis on 2016 half year global energy market trends.
ZEBRA 2020 project updates the datatools which offer a user-friendly presentation of indicators related to building activities in Europe.
Enerdata largely contributed to multiple publications of the Insight_E observatory throughout the year 2015. In partnership with Enerdata experts, several publications have been released, including the Market Stability Reserve: Assessing Reform Needs and Possible Impacts on the EU ETS, the Analysing RES support mechanisms in the EU post-2020, the Shale Gas for Europe study and the Analysis of opportunities and barriers for Mideast gas.
Enerdata has been a key figure in the ENTRANZE project consortium, which has as objective to support policy making for zero-energy buildings (NZEB) and renewable heating and cooling (RES-H/C) within existing national building stocks by providing necessary data, analysis and guidelines.
We are proud to announce that Frederic BAULE has agreed to join our teams on an associate basis in order to support Enerdata’s development.
Enerdata is pleased to announce the opening of a new office located in the core of Singapore Business District Hub and the appointment of Mr. Antonio Della Pelle as its new Managing Director Asia Pacific.
Canadian Enerdata Ltd. is holding a conference on the opportunities and challenges facing Canadian crude oil from both a global and domestic standpoint. The forum is to take place from the 22nd - 23rd of May in Calgary, Canada.
Enerdata in partnership with The Clean Energy Solutions Center invites you to join a free online training on key regulatory issues associated with the deployment of smart grids.
Enerdata will be holding a stand (Hall D, no. BG4-08) at the upcoming internal oil & gas industry event in Marina Bay Sands.
Enerdata is hosting a conference on energy demand modelling and CO2 policies on the 10th of October 2012
Enerdata will host a conference together with partner EasyM Technology and Consulting at the Grand Hotel Intercontinental in Korea.
Presentation of final results obtained for Pashmina project on the 16th of October 2012 at the European Commission
Mr. Château, President of Enerdata, will be presenting final results obtained for the paradigm shift in the urban energy and transport nexus, together with research institutes NERI and sMASH.
Enerdata to speak at the EU-US Summit on Science, Technology, Innovation and Sustainable Economic Growth
Mr. Château, President of Enerdata, will be giving a presentation on possible low carbon futures over the next 30 to 50 years.
Enerdata offers energy expertise at no cost through Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC); a clearinghouse of global policy best practices, data reports and analysis tools.
Intervention of Bertrand Château, President of Enerdata, on the results of the quantification of the 4 new energy scenario of the WEC at 2050
Intervention of Bertrand Château, President of Enerdata, on the results of the quantification of the 4 new energy scenario of the WEC at 2050.
This study, which uses the world energy model POLES, bears on the energy issues by 2050 posed by the prospect of climate change and by the downgrading of the availability of energy resources, especially fossil ones.