Energy and Environment Encyclopedias Articles
We at Enerdata are proud to share our partnership with two local publications based here in Grenoble, France, where we have our headquarters. The Encyclopedia of the Environment and the Encyclopedia of Energy both bring high-quality, scientific writing by academic experts to the public in multiple languages.
Through our partnership, Enerdata is sharing a selection of these articles here, which we think will be of use to our clients, partners, and readers.
Articles from both Encyclopedias on a variety of topics are available below in both English and French. More articles will be added regularly, so check back often!
2 Oct 2019 - Author(s): Jean-Marie MARTIN-AMOUROUX, Patrick CRIQUI
More and more voices are being raised to denounce the impacts of our societies on the environment and question past and current economic choices. The environment and the economy are pitted against each other. How do economic theories integrate (or not) environmental aspects? How have they evolved? Finally, are they now compatible with sustainable development?
29 Apr 2019 - Author(s): Jacques FONTAN
Diesel engines and wood-burning fireplaces are regularly accused of causing a large number of deaths through fine particles (PM 2.5). These volatile elements are a major component of air pollution and therefore a public health lever. However, there are various sources of fine particles as well as ultrafine particles, such as those from petrol engines, which are difficult to quantify. The measurements now being carried out only provide an overall mass concentration in the air.
23 Apr 2019 - Author(s): Jacques JOYARD, Joël SOMMERIA
Carbon atoms are basic elements of all living things. Via photosynthesis, plants, algae and some bacteria use energy from the sun to pull CO2 from our atmosphere. Then, the processes of respiration and decomposition of all these living things returns the CO2 back to the atmosphere. Beyond this short life cycle is a longer, slower geological cycle, which stores carbon in limestone and in fossil hydrocarbons. Limestone comes from marine organisms’ shells. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons are the result of the burial of organic sediments.
10 Feb 2019 - Author(s): Christelle BALLANDRAS-ROZET
The purpose of environmental taxation is simple: to change people’s behavior by increasing the cost of actions that hurt the environment. It has the added benefit of making people aware of the effects their actions have on biodiversity, natural resources and public health – just to name a few. Environmental taxation includes a wide variety of possible implementation measures, which highlights how useful a tool the tax system can be to protect the environment.
8 Feb 2019 - Author(s): Emmanuel DROUET
300,000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050 and $2 to 4 billion per year by 2030: this is the estimated impact of climate change, mainly through increased malnutrition, disease and heat-related stress. Agriculture is indeed very vulnerable to temperature variations while populations of virus-carrying insects will increase tenfold thanks to a more favourable environment. The radical change in living conditions, which differs from region to region, with the emergence of "climate refugees" (250 million expected in 2050), nevertheless makes the forecasting exercise difficult.
8 Feb 2019 - Author(s): Gerhard KRINNER
Understand the “climate machine” with this introduction to the most important concepts, including how the climate system works, and what contributes to its complexity. What is the different between climate and meteorology or weather? What are the essential elements of the climate system? These and other basic questions are answered in this article.
8 Feb 2019 - Author(s): Pierre BEREST
Imagine this: You’re hiking across the magnificent Luberon massif in Southern France. You pass a herd of sheep and a shepherd watching over them, but around the next corner on your path hides an industrial installation, lying quietly between two hills: offices, pumping stations, and well heads (as you see in Figure 1). You probably don’t realize that, at a depth of one kilometre under your feet, lies a significant portion of France’s strategic oil reserves.
7 Feb 2019 - Author(s): Ghislain DE MARSILY
The Earth’s water is essentially salty. The water cycle that is necessary for terrestrial life is fed by ocean evaporation, then condensed and released by rainfalls, run by the thermal engine of the sun. This cycle supplies water to the continents, which is divided into blue water (in rivers and groundwater) and green water (stored in the soil after rain and then used and transpired by plants).