Netherlands Energy Information
The Netherlands Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 5.04 %/year
Energy independence: 37.5%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 8.40 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 4.05%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the The Netherlands energy report
The Netherlands Related News
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The Netherlands Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Energy consumption per capita reached 4 toe in 2021 and is around 25% higher than the EU average, mainly because of the large refining and petrochemical industries. Per capita electricity consumption is 6 500 kWh, which is 20% above the EU average.
Total energy consumption has decreased by 1.7%/year at normal climate since 2017, reaching 70 Mtoe in 2021. Previously, it had increased by 1.4%/year over 2015-2017.
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
The country plays a major role in Europe's oil supply, both in terms of exported volumes, as well as in terms of fixing the oil price (spot market of Rotterdam). In addition, the port of Rotterdam is a key location for oil transit in Europe. The Netherlands produced 59 Mt of oil products in 2021 (+6%).
The country is a net exporter of oil products; exports reached 107 Mt in 2021 (+18%) and imports 82 Mt (+12%). Exports mainly went to Germany (18%) and Belgium (17%), while imports mainly came from Belgium (29%) and the United Kingdom (12%).
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption decreased rapidly starting in 2017, by 7.5%/year on average, to 22 Mt in 2021; the decrease had previously been slower (around 1.5%/year over 2007-2017).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
The largest share of oil is consumed for non-energy uses in the petrochemical industry (46%), followed by transport (35%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption increased by 2%/year on average over 2015-2019 and then declined by 1.7% between 2020 and 2021 to 42 bcm.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
The residential and services sector accounts for 39% of the natural gas consumption (2021). Almost all households use gas for heating, water heating, and cooking (98%). Electricity production represented 30% of gas consumption, while industry accounted for 27%.
Graph: GAS CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal is mainly consumed for power generation (71%). Between 2015 and 2020, coal consumption dropped by 67% (37% of which in 2020) to 6 Mt, due to the closures of coal-fired power plants. In 2021, coal consumption increased by 3.6% following the COVID-19 pandemic and reached 8.6 Mt. Previously, coal consumption saw a strong progression between 2011 and 2015 thanks to the gas-to-coal switch (+50%, including a 22% surge in 2015), bringing it to 18 Mt.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has remained relatively stable since 2018 at around 115 TWh, after a progression of 1.2% per year between 2015 and 2018. Electricity consumption had previously decreased slightly over 2009-2014 (-0.8%/year).
Electricity represents 17% of final energy consumption in 2021.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
The services sector and industry are the largest electricity users (31% each in 2021), followed by the residential sector (21%).
Renewable in % Electricity Production
EZK is in charge of renewable energy policy, including the Stimulation of Sustainable Energy Production (SDE++ since 2020, Stimulering Duurzame Energieproductie) programme.
The national target to increase the share of renewables in final consumption to 14% in 2020 was reached thanks to imports of renewable electricity from Denmark.
The EASG 2013 added a further target of 16% for 2023 and the NECP set a target of 27% for 2030. This target may not be achieved as it is projected at 26% by 2030 according to NEO 2021.
Interactive Chart The Netherlands Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
Total net GHG emissions (including international aviation) have been decreasing since a peak in 1996. They reached 175 Mt CO2eq in 2020, around 25% below their 1990 level and 32% below their peak value. They dropped by 11% in 2020 with the Covid crisis.
The Netherlands currently holds a GHG emissions reduction target of 49% by 2030, higher than the EU mandated 40%. A total investment budget of €300m per year has been put in place over 2018-30 to promote actions to meet this target.
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