India Energy Information
India Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -7.4 %/year
Energy independence: 65.0%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 1.59 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 18.3%
* at purchasing power parity
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India Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Total energy consumption per capita remains around 0.7 toe (2020), half the Asian average. Electricity consumption per capita reached 860 kWh in 2020, around the two thirds of the Asian average.
Due to the Covid-19 crisis, total energy consumption fell by 3.4% in 2020 to 908 Mtoe. Over 2010-2019, it was increasing rapidly (+3.3%/year).
Coal is the country's top energy source with a share of 44% in 2020, followed by oil (24%) and biomass (22%). Natural gas covers 6% and primary electricity (hydro, nuclear, solar, and wind) 4%.
Interactive Chart India Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production decreased by around 6% in 2020 to 35 Mt.
Net oil imports fell by 7.3% in 2020 due to the Covid-19 crisis. However, given the rapid growth in oil demand, India remains the world's third largest importer of crude oil, with imports of 201 Mt in 2020 (+23% compared to 2010). In 2020, crude oil imports represented 81% of the country's oil needs (- 3% points). India is a net oil product exporter (13 Mt in 2020, -39%).
Interactive Chart India Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
As a consequence of the Covid-19 crisis, oil product consumption fell sharply in 2020 to 193 Mt (-9.7%). It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4.6%/year).
Of the total consumption for 2020, 40% is used in transport, 30% in industry (including non-energy uses), and 21% in the residential, services, and agriculture sector. The remainder is consumed in power plants (2%) and in the hydrocarbon industry (7%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart India Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption remained stable in 2020 (63 bcm). From 2014, when it dropped to 52 bcm due to supply problems, until 2017, gas consumption increased by 6.1%/year, then stabilised around the current level.
Industry is the main consumer of gas with 46% in 2020 (mainly fertiliser plants). It is followed by electricity production (29%) and, to a much lesser extent, transport (5%) and the residential and services sector (6%).
Interactive Chart India Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption fell by around 4% to 976 Mt in 2020. Since 2014, its progression has slowed down to around 2.4%/year, exceeding 1 Gt in 2018 for the first time.
In 2020, power generation and industry were the main consumers of coal and lignite, with 70% and 25%, respectively (4% only for households and services).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart India Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption decreased slightly in 2020 to 1 200 TWh (-2.3%). It had stagnated in 2019 after strong growth since 2010 (6.6%/year over 2010-2018).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
IREDA, the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, finances the development of renewables. SECI, Solar Energy Corporation of India, under MNRE, manages the implementation of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), which aims to deploy 100 GW of solar power over 2010-2022.
Interactive Chart India Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its first NDC, India aims to reduce its CO2 emission intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030 relative to 2005. It also aims for 40% of the total electricity capacity to be based on non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 (32% in 2020).
In 2019, the government announced a 100% railway electrification target in 2030 as part of its strategy to reduce its CO2 emissions.
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