India Energy Information
India Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 12.6 %/year
Energy independence: 66.4%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 1.61 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 18.2%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Total energy consumption per capita remains around 0.7 toe (2021), half the Asian average. Electricity consumption per capita reached 970 kWh in 2021, about a third of the Asian average.
Total energy consumption reached 927 Mtoe in 2021 (+4.7%), which is still 1.2% below the 2019 level. It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4%/year).
Coal is the country's top energy source with a share of 44% in 2021, followed by oil (24%) and biomass (22%). Natural gas covers 6% and primary electricity (hydro, nuclear, solar, and wind) 4%.
Interactive Chart India Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production exceeded its 2019 level by 16% to 43 Mt in 2021, following a decrease by around 5% in 2020.
Net oil imports rebounded slightly in 2021 (3.4%) after a sharp decrease in 2020 (-11%) due to the Covid-19 crisis. India is the world's third largest importer of crude oil, with imports of 210 Mt in 2021 (+4% compared to 2015). In 2021, crude oil imports represented 81% of the country's oil needs. The country is a net oil product exporter (24 Mt in 2021), although its exports have fallen by 29% since 2015.
Interactive Chart India Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
As a consequence of the Covid-19 crisis, oil product consumption fell sharply in 2020 (-10%) and remained below the 2019 level in 2021 to 209 Mt (+5.5%). It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4.4%/year).
Of the total consumption for 2021, 41% was used in transport, 32% in industry (including non-energy uses), and 21% in the residential, services, and agriculture sector. The remainder is consumed in power plants (1%) and in the hydrocarbon industry (5%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart India Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption increased by 7% to 65 bcm in 2021 after a 5.5% reduction in 2020. Between 2014 and 2017, gas consumption increased by 6%/year and then remained stable until 2019.
Industry is the main consumer of gas with 48% in 2021 (mainly fertiliser plants). It is followed by electricity production (25%) and, to a much lesser extent, transport (5%) and the residential and services sector (7%).
India aims to promote the use of CNG vehicles to reduce pollution in cities. 3 628 CNG stations have been deployed as of December 2021.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart India Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption recovered its 2019 level in 2021 (1.02 Gt) after a 5.7% decline in 2020. Between 2015 and 2018, its progression had been significant (around 5%/year).
In 2021, power generation and industry were the main consumers of coal and lignite, with 74% and 21%, respectively (3% only for households and services).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart India Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased by around 5% in 2021 to 1355 TWh (+2.9% compared to the 2019 level). It grew rapidly over 2010-2019 (7%/year).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
IREDA, the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, finances the development of renewables. SECI, Solar Energy Corporation of India, under MNRE, manages the implementation of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), which aims to deploy 100 GW of solar power over 2010-2022 (mid-2022, only half of this target is achieved).
Interactive Chart India Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In late 2021, the country pledged to reach net-zero emissions in 2070. In addition, it announced a target of 45% by 2030 to reduce its CO2 emission intensity of GDP, but the reference used for this target has not been disclosed. In its first NDC, India targeted a reduction of its CO2 intensity by 33-35% by 2030 relative to 2005. It also aims for 40% of the total electricity capacity to be based on non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 (32% in 2020).
In 2019, the government announced a 100% railway electrification target in 2030 as part of its strategy to reduce its CO2 emissions.
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