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India Energy Information

India Key Figures

Population: 1393 million
GDP growth rate: 8.95 %/year
Energy independence: 63.6%

Data of the last year available: 2021
Total consumption/GDP:* 77.5 (2005=100)
CO2 Emissions: 1.69 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 17.9%

* at purchasing power parity

View all macro and energy indicators in the India energy report

India Related News

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India Related Research

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

A data overview is available in the global energy statistics app

Total Energy Consumption

Total energy consumption per capita remains around 0.7 toe (2021), half the Asian average. Electricity consumption per capita reached 920 kWh in 2021, about a third of the Asian average.

Total energy consumption increased by 9% in 2021 to 951 Mtoe, after a 5.9% drop in 2020. It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (3.7%/year).

Coal is the country's top energy source with a share of 46% in 2021, followed by oil (23%) and biomass (21%). Natural gas covers 6% and primary electricity (hydro, nuclear, solar, and wind) 4%.

Interactive Chart India Total Energy Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed fondamentals of the market at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the India energy report

Crude Oil Production

Oil production has been declining since 2010, reaching 34 Mt in 2021 (-5% since 2018).

India is the world's third largest importer of crude oil, with imports of 210 Mt in 2021 (+4.7% compared to 2015). In 2021, crude oil imports represented 88% of the country's oil needs. The country is a net oil product exporter (23 Mt in 2021), although its exports have fallen by 31% since 2015.

Net oil imports rebounded in 2021 (5%) after a sharp decrease in 2020 (-11%) due to the Covid-19 crisis, and have increased by about 10% higher over the first nine months of 2022.

Interactive Chart India Crude Oil Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our Asia Refineries Dataset

Oil Products Consumption

As a consequence of the Covid-19 crisis, oil product consumption fell sharply in 2020 (-8.8%) and rebounded by 5.2% in 2021 to 213 Mt, which is still below the 2019 level. It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4.4%/year).

Of the total consumption for 2021, 42% was used in transport, 30% in industry (including non-energy uses), and 21% in the residential, services, and agriculture sector. The remainder is consumed in power plants (1%) and in the hydrocarbon industry (6%).

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Interactive Chart India Refined Oil Products Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our Asia Refineries Dataset

Natural Gas Consumption

Gas consumption increased by 2.7% to 64 bcm in 2021 after a 4% reduction in 2020. Between 2014 and 2019, gas consumption increased by 4.8%/year.

Industry is the main consumer of gas with 51% in 2021 (mainly fertiliser plants). It is followed by electricity production (23%) and, to a much lesser extent, transport (5%) and the residential and services sector (6%).

India aims to promote the use of CNG vehicles to reduce pollution in cities; 4 500 CNG stations had been deployed as of July 2022.

Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)

Interactive Chart India Natural Gas Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on the LNG trade, you can request a sample of our Asia LNG Trade Dataset

Coal Consumption

Coal and lignite consumption reached its highest level in 2021 to 1.1 Gt (+17%) after a 5.5% decline in 2020. Between 2015 and 2018, its progression had been significant (around 5%/year).

In 2021, power generation and industry were the main consumers of coal and lignite, with 76% and 20%, respectively (3% only for households and services).

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)

Interactive Chart India Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed consumption trends at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the India energy report

Power Consumption

Electricity consumption increased by 8% in 2021 to 1282 TWh, after a contraction by 6.7% in 2020. It grew rapidly over 2010-2019 (7%/year).

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)

Renewable in % Electricity Production

IREDA, the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, finances the development of renewables. SECI, Solar Energy Corporation of India, under MNRE, manages the implementation of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), which aims to deploy 100 GW of solar power over 2010-2022. By mid-2022, only half of this target has been achieved.

Interactive Chart India Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Learn more about renewables in the Mini grid Africa & Asia markets for village electrification

CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions

In its updated NDC (August 2022), the country reiterated a target to reduce its CO2 emission intensity of GDP by 45% in 2030, compared to 2005 level. It also aims for 50% of the total electricity capacity to be based on non-fossil fuel sources in 2030 (the previous target was 40%) from 36% in 2021. It is also considering implementing a carbon market.

In 2019, the government announced a 100% railway electrification target in 2030 as part of its strategy to reduce its CO2 emissions.

In 2021, the country pledged to reach net-zero emissions in 2070.

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