India Energy Information
India Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -7.4 %/year
Energy independence: 64.1%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 1.55 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 18.2%
* at purchasing power parity
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India Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Total energy consumption per capita remains around 0.6 toe (2020), half the Asian average. Electricity consumption per capita reached 940 kWh in 2020, about a third of the Asian average.
Due to the Covid-19 crisis, total energy consumption fell by 5.6% in 2020 to 885 Mtoe, after increasing rapidly over 2010-2019(4%/year).
Coal is the country's top energy source with a share of 44% in 2020, followed by oil (24%) and biomass (22%). Natural gas covers 6% and primary electricity (hydro, nuclear, solar, and wind) 4%.
Interactive Chart India Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production decreased by around 5% in 2020 to 35 Mt.
Net oil imports fell by 11% in 2020 due to the Covid-19 crisis. However, given the rapid growth in oil demand, India remains the world's third largest importer of crude oil, with imports of 196 Mt in 2020 (+20% compared to 2010). In 2020, crude oil imports represented 84% of the country's oil needs. India is a net oil product exporter (16 Mt in 2020, -35%).
Interactive Chart India Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
As a consequence of the Covid-19 crisis, oil product consumption fell sharply in 2020 to 202 Mt (-10%). It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4.4%/year).
Of the total consumption for 2020, 42% was used in transport, 30% in industry (including non-energy uses), and 22% in the residential, services, and agriculture sector. The remainder is consumed in power plants (1%) and in the hydrocarbon industry (5%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart India Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption decreased by 5.5% in 2020 to 60 bcm. Between 2014 and 2017, gas consumption increased by 6%/year and then remained stable until 2019.
Industry is the main consumer of gas with 48% in 2020 (mainly fertiliser plants). It is followed by electricity production (25%) and, to a much lesser extent, transport (5%) and the residential and services sector (7%).
India aims to promote the use of CNG vehicles to reduce pollution in cities. There was a total of around 3.3 million CNG vehicles supplied from about 2 208 CNG stations (mid-2020).
Interactive Chart India Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption fell by around 6% to 961 Mt in 2020. Since 2014, its progression has slowed down to around 2.4%/year, exceeding 1 Gt in 2018 for the first time.
In 2020, power generation and industry were the main consumers of coal and lignite, with 76% and 20%, respectively (3% only for households and services).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart India Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption decreased slightly in 2020 to 1 300 TWh (-1.7%). It grew rapidly over 2010-2019 (7%/year).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
IREDA, the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, finances the development of renewables. SECI, Solar Energy Corporation of India, under MNRE, manages the implementation of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), which aims to deploy 100 GW of solar power over 2010-2022.
Interactive Chart India Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In November 2021, the country pledged to reach net-zero emissions in 2070. In addition, it announced a target of 45% by 2030 to reduce its CO2 emission intensity of GDP, but the reference used for this target has not been disclosed. In its first NDC, India targeted a reduction of its CO2 intensity by 33-35% by 2030 relative to 2005. It also aims for 40% of the total electricity capacity to be based on non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 (32% in 2020).
In 2019, the government announced a 100% railway electrification target in 2030 as part of its strategy to reduce its CO2 emissions.
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