Indonesia Energy Information
Indonesia Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -2.1 %/year
Energy independence: 100%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 1.97 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 8.77%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Total consumption per capita is 0.8 toe, while electricity consumption per capita is 939 kWh (2020).
Total energy consumption increased by 3.4%/year from 2013 to 2019 and declined by around 7% in 2020.
Oil is the country's dominant source of energy, providing 30% of the total (2020), but its market share is decreasing (37.5% in 2013). Coal comes second with 29%, while gas accounts for 15%, biomass for 13%, and geothermal and hydro for 13% (2020). The share of coal is increasing (+14 points since 2013), largely at the expense of oil.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production declined by 10% between 2016 and 2020 to 36 Mt. It had decreased by 44% between 2000 and 2015 from a peak of 70 Mt and rebounded by 5% in 2016. This decline is due to the depletion of the main fields and the lack of investments.
Indonesia became a net importer of crude oil in 2006. Net imports reached 17 Mt in 2020 (of which 14 Mt for crude oil).
The total refining capacity is 1.2 mb/d (end of 2020), of which 97% is distributed among 5 large refineries: Cilacap (348 kb/d), Balikpapan (260 kb/d), Dumai (127 kb/d), Musi (127 kb/d), and Balongan (125 kb/d).
Interactive Chart Indonesia Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption declined sharply in 2019 and 2020 (by 4% and 13%, respectively) to 67 Mt in 2020.
Transport absorbs 63% of that consumption; the remainder goes to the residential, services, and agriculture sector (15%), industry (8%), electricity production (4%), the hydrocarbon sector (4%), and other uses (6%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Natural gas consumption declined in 2020 (-13%, 41 bcm) after a rapid increase in 2018 and 2019 (+12% and 7%, respectively). It remained relatively stable over 2010-2016.
Industry is the largest consumer of gas 46%, and is followed by power generation (30%) and the hydrocarbon sector (oil and gas extraction and LNG plants) with 24%.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Graph: GAS CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Consumption of coal and lignite (around 80% lignite) increased very rapidly over 2013-2019 (+14%/year on average) and declined by 6% in 2020 to 137 Mt.
The electricity sector accounts for 77% of coal and lignite consumption and the remainder goes to industry.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased very rapidly until 2019 (by around 6%/year since 2010) and decreased slightly in 2020 to 257 TWh (-0.9%).
Households account for 43% of the consumption, industry for 34%, and services for 22% (2020).
Almost all households are electrified (99% in 2020, up from 28% in 1990 and 86% in 2000).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
EBTKE, the Directorate General (DG) for New Energy, Renewable and Energy Conservation, focuses on renewables in power generation, whereas the DG of Electricity sets the FiT and the ceiling price for power from renewable sources.
The national energy policy revision (Regulation No. 79/2014) set a target of 23% of renewables in the total primary energy supply in 2025 (excluding traditional biomass). The RUKN 2019-38 set a target of 23% of total power capacity from renewables in 2025 (about 41 GW) and at least 28% in 2038.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its first NDC, Indonesia has committed to reducing GHG emissions by 29% by 2030 (conditional target of 41% if global agreements are reached such as bilateral co-operations, technology development and transfer, financial help, etc.). The NDC was updated in July 2021 but kept the same targets.
In the Long Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (LTS-LCCR 2050), Indonesia plans to reach net-zero emissions in 2060.
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