Indonesia Energy Information
Indonesia Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 3.69 %/year
Energy independence: 100%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 1.94 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 8.77%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Total consumption per capita is 0.8 toe, while electricity consumption per capita is 978 kWh (2021).
Total energy consumption increased by 3.4%/year from 2013 to 2019 and declined by around 10% in 2020. Consumption increased by around 4% in 2021 but was still 6 below 2019 levels.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production declined by 20% between 2016 and 2021 to 33 Mt. It had decreased by 44% between 2000 and 2015 from a peak of 70 Mt and rebounded by 5% in 2016. This decline is due to the depletion of the main fields and the lack of investments.
Indonesia became a net importer of crude oil in 2006. Net oil imports reached 34 Mt in 2021 (of which 7 Mt for crude oil).
The total refining capacity is 1.15 mb/d (end of 2021), of which 97% is distributed among 5 large refineries: Cilacap (348 kb/d), Balikpapan (260 kb/d), Dumai (127 kb/d), Musi (127 kb/d), and Balongan (125 kb/d).
Interactive Chart Indonesia Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
After peaking in 2018 at 80 Mt, oil consumption declined sharply in 2019 and 2020 and returned to 2015-2017 levels in 2021, with 72 Mt.
Transport absorbs 59% of that consumption; the remainder goes mainly to the residential, services, and agriculture sector (15%), industry (9%), and the hydrocarbon sector (9%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
In 2021, natural gas consumption (41 bcm) did not recover from its 13% decline in 2020 (-13%), after a rapid increase in 2018 and 2019 (+12% and 7%, respectively). It remained relatively stable over 2010-2016.
Industry is the largest consumer of gas (44%), followed by power generation with33% and the hydrocarbon sector (oil and gas extraction and LNG plants) with 23%.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Consumption of coal and lignite (around 85% lignite) increased very rapidly over 2013-2019 (+14%/year on average) and remained at 138 Mt in 2021 after a 6% drop in 2020.
The electricity sector accounts for 81% of coal and lignite consumption and the remainder goes to industry.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has increased very rapidly apart from 2020 (by around 6%/year over 2010-2019 and 5% in 2021), reaching270 TWh in 2021.
Households account for 41% of the consumption, industry for 36%, and services for 22% (2021).
Almost all households are electrified (99.5% in 2021, up from 28% in 1990 and 86% in 2000).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
EBTKE, the Directorate General (DG) for New Energy, Renewable and Energy Conservation, focuses on renewables in power generation, whereas the DG of Electricity sets the FiT and the ceiling price for power from renewable sources.
The national energy policy revision (Regulation No. 79/2014) set a target of 23% of renewables in the total primary energy supply in 2025 (excluding traditional biomass). The RUKN 2019-38 set a target of 23% of total power capacity from renewables in 2025 (about 41 GW) and at least 28% in 2038, with a minimum of 31% by 2050.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its updated NDC (2021), Indonesia kept the same target as in the first version, i.e. a reduction of GHG emissions by 29% by 2030 (conditional target of 41% if global agreements are reached such as bilateral co-operations, technology development and transfer, financial help, etc.).
In the Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (LTS-LCCR 2050), Indonesia plans to reach net-zero emissions in 2060.
Total GHG emissions increased by 3%/year from 2000 to 2019, according to Climate Action Tracker, and declined by 5% in 2020 due to the Covid-19 crisis.
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