Indonesia Energy Information
Indonesia Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -2.1 %/year
Energy independence: 100%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 2.07 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 7.28%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Total consumption per capita is 0.8 toe, while electricity consumption per capita is 970 kWh (2020).
Total energy consumption increased by 3.1%/year from 2013 to 2019, and declined by around 5% in 2020.
Oil is the country's dominant source of energy, providing 32% of the total (2020), but its market share is decreasing (35% in 2012). Coal comes second with 28%, while gas accounts for 15%, biomass for 13%, and geothermal and hydro for 12% (2020). The share of coal is increasing (+10 points since 2012), largely at the expense of oil.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
After decreasing by 44% between 2000 and 2015 from a peak of 70 Mt (-3.7%/year on average), oil production increased by 5% in 2016, and declined again by 10% as of 2016 until 2020 (-3.9%/year) (36 Mt in 2020). This decline is due to the depletion of the main fields and the lack of investments. Indonesia became a net importer of crude oil in 2006. Net imports reached 17 Mt in 2020 (of which 14 Mt for crude oil).
Interactive Chart Indonesia Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption rebounded between 2016 and 2018 (+7%/year), catching up with the growth between 2009 and 2012, but declined in 2019 and 2020 to 77 Mt (by 3% and 4%, respectively).
Transport absorbs 64% of that consumption; the remainder goes to the hydrocarbon sector, the residential, services and agriculture sector (13%), industry (13%), electricity production (4%), and other uses (6%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Natural gas consumption declined in 2020 (-11%) after being stable in 2019 (44.5 bcm) and increasing strongly in 2018 (+12%). It remained relatively stable over 2010-2016.
The hydrocarbons sector, in particular the oil and gas extraction and the liquefaction plants, absorbs a large fraction of the consumption (26%); the weight of industry is 46%, while power plants account for 28%.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Consumption of coal and lignite increased very rapidly over 2013-2019 (+14%/year on average) and declined by 4% in 2020 to 139 Mt (mainly lignite).
The electricity sector accounts for around 70% of coal and lignite consumption and the remainder goes to industry.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Indonesia Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased very rapidly up to 2019 (by around 7%/year since 2010) and decreased slightly in 2020 to 266 TWh (-0.8%).
Households account for 43%% of the consumption, industry for 34%, and services for 22% (2020).
Almost all households are electrified (99% in 2019, up from 28% in 1990 and 86% in 2000).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
EBTKE, the Directorate General (DG) for New Energy, Renewable and Energy Conservation, focuses on renewables in power generation, whereas the DG of Electricity sets the FiT and the ceiling price for power from renewable sources.
The national energy policy revision (Regulation No. 79/2014) sets a target of 23% of renewables in the total primary energy supply by 2025 (excluding traditional biomass). The RUKN 2019-38 sets a target of 23% of total power capacity from renewables by 2025 (equivalent to about 41 GW) and at least 28% in 2038.
Interactive Chart Indonesia Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its first NDC, Indonesia has committed to reducing GHG emissions by 29% by 2030 (conditional target of 41% if global agreements are reached such as bilateral co-operations, technology development and transfer, financial help, etc.).
In the draft of the second NDC, Indonesia plans to reach net-zero emissions in 2070, notably by reducing the use of coal by 60% in 2050.
In May 2021, the government announced the possibility of introducing a carbon tax to reduce GHG emissions.
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