Romania Energy Information
Romania Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 4.08 %/year
Energy independence: 74.3%
Data of the last year available: 2019
CO2 Emissions: 3.86 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 12.4%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Energy consumption per capita is about 1.7 toe (2019), which is 43% below the EU average, and electricity consumption amounts to 2 550 kWh/cap (54% below the EU average).
Total energy consumption has increased slightly since 2014 (+1.3%/year), reaching 34 Mtoe in 2019; it had declined sharply between 2006 and 2014 (-2.9%/year).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Interactive Chart Romania Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production, which had been falling by almost 6%/year between 2002 and 2012 before stabilising at around 4 Mt until 2015, is declining again by 2.7%/year (3.7 Mt in 2019).
Oil imports have doubled since 2000, exceeding 12 Mt in 2019 (+3.7% in 2019 alone), including 9.7 Mt of crude oil and 2.5 Mt of oil products.
The refining capacity stands at around 250 000 bbl/d in 2019. The output of oil products, which fell by 34% between 2005 and 2012, has grown by 36% since then, reaching 13 Mt in 2019. Romania exports over 40% of its oil products production (5.4 Mt in 2019).
Interactive Chart Romania Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption has been increasing by 2.2%/year since 2010, reaching 9.8 Mt in 2019. It had declined by 1.8%/year between 2000 and 2010.
Transport is the largest oil consuming sector, accounting for 61% of oil consumption in 2019 (up from 55% in 2010). Industry absorbs 20% of this consumption.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Interactive Chart Romania Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption has been growing by 2.4%/year since 2015, reaching 12 bcm in 2019 (+4.4% in 2019 alone), as industrial demand has remained stable and gas consumption in the power sector recovered (+4.3%). Gas demand fell by 2.7%/year between 2000 and 2015 due to declining demand from the power sector (-2.3%/year) and from industry (-4%/year).
The power sector now accounts for 29% of gas demand (up from 22% in 2010), while industry accounts for 26% (down from 33% in 2010). In 2019, the residential and services sector accounted for 35% of gas demand.
Interactive Chart Romania Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Lignite and coal consumption, which had been growing by 3%/year between 2000 and 2008, has fallen by 38% since then, from 40 Mt to 25 Mt in 2019 (with over 95% of lignite).
Since most of coal and lignite is consumed in power plants (93% in 2019), the commissioning of a new nuclear unit in 2007, growing wind power generation and lignite-fired capacity retirements (-2.3 GW since 2008) have contributed to reducing lignite consumption.
Graph: LIGNITE CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart Romania Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has been rising since 2000 (by around 1.1%/year on average, apart from 2009, until 2018). In 2019, it dipped by 1.2% to 49 TWh.
Industry is the largest electricity consumer with 45% of total electricity consumption in 2019, followed by households with 26% and services with 17%.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019 %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) of 2010 set a target of 24% of renewables in final energy consumption in 2020 (43% for power, 10% in transport, and 22% for heating and cooling). Romania exceeded this target in 2014 (23.9% in 2018, of which 41.9% for electricity, 6.3% in transport, and 25.4% for heating).
According to its NECP, the country aims to raise the share of renewables in final energy consumption to 30.7% in 2030, including 49.4% in electricity consumption, 33% in heating and cooling, and 14.2% in transport).
Interactive Chart Romania Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
According to its NECP, Romania aims to cut its GHG emissions by around 44% in 2030 compared to 2005 (-43.9% for emissions under the ETS scheme and -2% for non-ETS emissions). In 2018, GHG emissions were 23% below their 2005 level at 117 MtCO2eq.
CO2-energy emissions decreased by 3.4% between 2006 and 2016 and have been rising since then (+3.3%/year), reaching 75 Mt in 2019. This is still 54% below their 1990 level.
Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)
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