United Kingdom Energy Information
United Kingdom Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -9.9 %/year
Energy independence: 75.6%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 4.52 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 8.82%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the United Kingdom energy report
United Kingdom Related News
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United Kingdom Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Consumption per capita has shrunk by almost a third since 2000, bringing it to 2.3 toe in 2020. Electricity consumption per capita dropped by more than 20%, from 5 800 kWh in 2000 to 4 200 kWh in 2019.
Total energy consumption decreased by almost 2%/year over 2006-2019 and by around 9% in 2020 to 154 Mtoe.
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Crude oil production decreased by 8% in 2020, following a 30% rebound between 2014 and 2019. Previously, it decreased by 70% between 1999 and 2014, from 137 Mt to 40 Mt.
The UK became a net crude oil importer in 2005 and imported a net amount of 0.4 Mt in 2020, down from 29.5 Mt in 2012. Most crude oil imports in 2019came from Norway (37%) and the United States (22%).
The country's refining capacity has fallen from 1.8 mb/d in 2011 to 1.3 mb/d at end-2020 across 6 facilities.
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption declined by 15% in 2020, after a 2%/year decrease between 2017 and 2019 and a 5% increase between 2013 and 2017, led by the transport and petrochemical sectors. Over 2005-2013, oil consumption decreased by around 3%/year.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
In 2019, transport accounted for 64% of oil consumption (69% in 2000) and industry for 16% (including non-energy uses, 28% in 2000).
Graph: PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Natural gas consumption fell by 5% in 2020 to 73 bcm, after a period of relative stability between 2016 and 2019 around 80 bcm. Previously, gas consumption increased by 14% between 2014 and 2016, after a 30% decline over 2004-2014.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal consumption dropped by almost 90% between 2012 and 2020 to 8.2 Mt because of the closure of numerous coal-fired power plants.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
The power sector accounted for 31% of coal consumption in 2020, down from 88% in 2012.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption fell by 5% in 2020 to 286 TWh, after a period of stability between 2014 and 2019 (302 TWh in 2019). It fell by 1.3%/year between its peak of 357 TWh in 2005 and 2014.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
The electricity consumption split between sectors was impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic: households are the main electricity consumers (38%, + 4% points compared to 2019) followed by industry (29%, -1% point) and services (28%, -2% points).
Renewable in % Electricity Production
In August 2020, the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC) updated its target for deployment of renewables as part of a low-cost low carbon electricity system, from 50% to 65% of the power mix by 2030 (47% in 2020).
In 2011, Scotland raised its renewable electricity target for power consumption to 100% by 2020 (97% in 2020). Its previous 50% target was met in 2015.
The target of 20 GW of solar in 2020 set in the Solar Strategy of 2014 will not be reached (13 GW end of 2019).
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions have been decreasing rapidly since 1990 and were in 2019 45% below their 1990 level according to provisional figures. In 2020, GHG emissions declined by 8.9% to 414 MtCO2eq, which is 49% below their 1990 level.
In December 2020, the UK updated its NDC. The country aims to reduce its GHG emissions by 68% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels; the previous NDC target was 53%. In addition, the country will enshrine a new target in law by June 2021 to cut GHG emissions by 78% by 2035 compared to 1990 levels.
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