Spain Energy Information
Spain Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -11 %/year
Energy independence: 31.6%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 4.06 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 9.33%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the Spain energy report
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Spain Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
In 2020, total consumption per capita was 2.3 toe (20% lower than the EU average), including 4 800 kWh of electricity (9% below the EU average).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Total energy consumption, which had declined by 1.6%/year between 2017 and 2019, decreased by 11% to 107 Mtoe in 2020, i.e. 25% below its 2007 peak. The 2008 crisis slashed energy consumption (-3.3%/year until 2014), which recovered rapidly between 2014 and 2017 (+3.3%/year).
Interactive Chart Spain Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production is very low (28 kt in 2020). Crude oil imports increased by 2.7%/year from 2010 to 2018 and fell by 15% in 2020 to 58.5 Mt. The main suppliers of crude in 2020 were: Nigeria (20%), Mexico (15%), and Saudi Arabia (10%).
Spain has 9 oil refineries with a total capacity of about 1.6 mb/d. Refined oil product production increased by 2.7%/year between 2011 and 2018, but has declined by 9%/year since 2019 to 56 Mt.
Interactive Chart Spain Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption fell by 19% to less than 42 Mt in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Previously, it had been recovering since 2014 (+2.1%/year) to 50 Mt in 2019.
Nearly 56% of the oil consumption is absorbed by the transport sector, with power plants accounting for just 6% of oil demand.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Spain Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
The country's gas consumption decreased by 10% to 32 bcm in 2020 due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It had been rising rapidly between 2014 and 2019 (+5.3%/year, of which +14% in 2019), as gas consumption in the power sector skyrocketed (+94%, including +52% in 2019), replacing coal-fired generation. Gas consumption fell rapidly between 2008 and 2014 (-6.3%/year) after an 11%/year surge between 2000 and 2008 with the rapid development of CCGT capacities.
Interactive Chart Spain Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Most of the coal and lignite is used for power generation (64% in 2020), 27% in industry, and 7% in households, services and agriculture. Coal consumption has dropped by82% since 2018, from 21 Mt to 8.8 Mt in 2019 and to 3.8 Mt in 2020, and by 19%/year (-85%) since 2011 with coal-fired unit closures.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Spain Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
The country's electricity consumption decreased by 6% to 228 TWh in 2020 after dipping by 1.6% in 2019, mainly due to lower demand from the industrial sector. Electricity consumption, which had surged (+3.7%/year) between 2000 and 2008, dipped until 2014 (-1.8%/year) and recovered slightly until 2018 (+1.3%/year).
The share of electricity in final energy consumption regularly increases (25% in 2020, compared to 18% in 1990).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
According to the National Action Plan for Renewable Energies (PANER, 2010), the share of renewables in final energy consumption should increase to 22.7% in 2020 (18% achieved in 2019). Under the NECP 2021-2030, renewables should cover 42% of final energy consumption in 2030. They should contribute 74% of power generation by 2030 and 100% in 2050. To reach this target, the government aims to install 22 GW of wind, 30 GW of solar PV, 5 GW of CSP, 3.5 GW of pumped-storage, and 800 MW of biomass between 2020 and 2030.
Interactive Chart Spain Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions (total net emissions with international aviation) have been declining since 2017, decreasing by 5% in 2019 to 296 MtCO2eq, and by nearly 14% in 2020 (preliminary estimates, including LULUCF), as a result of higher renewable power generation, lower coal use and transport restrictions in the context of pandemic in 2020. After a 28% fall due to the economic downturn between 2007 and 2013, GHG emissions rose by 1.2%/year between 2013 and 2017.
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