Spain Energy Information
Spain Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 5.70 %/year
Energy independence: 30.4%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 4.50 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 10.1%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the Spain energy report
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Spain Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
In 2021, total consumption per capita was 2.4 toe (19% lower than the EU average), including 4 900 kWh of electricity (11% below the EU average).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Total energy consumption, which had declined by 1.6%/year between 2017 and 2019, decreased by 10% in 2020 before recovering by 5% in 2021 to 114 Mtoe. The 2008 crisis slashed energy consumption (-3.3%/year until 2014), which recovered rapidly between 2014 and 2017 (+3.3%/year).
Interactive Chart Spain Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production is very low (10 kt in 2020). Crude oil imports increased by 2.7%/year from 2010 to 2018 and fell by 15% in 2020, before increasing again by 4% in 2021 to 61 Mt. The main suppliers of crude in 2020 were Nigeria (18%), Mexico (14%), and Kazakhstan (7%).
Spain has 9 oil refineries with a total capacity of about 1.6 mb/d. Refined oil product production increased by 2.7%/year between 2011 and 2018, but declined by 9%/year in 2019 and 2020, before increasing by 4% in 2021 to 58 Mt.
Interactive Chart Spain Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption rose by 7.5% to 47 Mt in 2021, after a sharp 16% drop in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Previously, it had been recovering since 2014 (+1.8%/year) after a rapid reduction over 2017-2014.
Of total oil consumption, 57% is absorbed by the transport sector, with power plants accounting for just 4% of oil demand.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart Spain Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
The country's gas consumption increased by 6% to 34 bcm in 2021 after a 10% drop in 2020 due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It had been rising rapidly between 2014 and 2019 (+5.3%/year, of which +14% in 2019), as gas consumption in the power sector skyrocketed (+94%, including +52% in 2019), replacing coal-fired generation. Gas consumption fell rapidly between 2008 and 2014 (-6.3%/year) after an 11%/year surge between 2000 and 2008 with the rapid development of CCGT capacities.
Interactive Chart Spain Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal consumption dropped by 76% between 2018 and 2020, from 21 Mt to 4.9 Mt, before seeing a slight increase in 2021 (+2% to 5.1 Mt).
Around half of the coal and lignite is used for power generation (49% in 2021), followed by industry (40%).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart Spain Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
The country's electricity consumption increased by 3% to 233 TWh in 2021 after dropping by 6% in 2020 and 1.6% in 2019, mainly due to lower demand from the industrial sector. Electricity consumption, which had surged between 2000 and 2008 (+3.7%/year), dipped until 2014 (-1.8%/year) and recovered slightly until 2018 (+1.3%/year).
The share of electricity in final energy consumption regularly increased from 18% in 1990 to 22.5% in 2010, and 23% in 2021.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The target set in the National Action Plan for Renewable Energies (PANER, 2010) for a share of renewables in final energy consumption of 22.7% in 2020 was missed by 1.5 points (21.2% achieved). Under the NECP 2021-2030, renewables should cover 42% of final energy consumption in 2030. They should contribute 74% of power generation by 2030 and 100% in 2050. To reach this target, the government aims to install 22 GW of wind, 30 GW of solar PV, 5 GW of CSP, 3.5 GW of pumped-storage, and 800 MW of biomass between 2020 and 2030.
Interactive Chart Spain Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions (total net emissions with international aviation) declined by 26% between 2017 and 2020 to 246 MtCO2eq (5% of which - in 2019 and -17% in 2020), as a result of higher renewable power generation, lower coal use, and, in 2020, transport restrictions. After a 28% fall due to the economic downturn between 2007 and 2013, GHG emissions rose by 1.2%/year between 2013 and 2017.
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