Latvia Energy Information
Latvia Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -3.6 %/year
Energy independence: 63.3%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 3.37 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 5.34%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the Latvia energy report
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Latvia Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Energy consumption per capita is 2.2 toe (34% below the EU average), including 3 500 kWh of electricity, i.e. around 36% below the EU average (2020).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Total energy consumption decreased in 2019 and 2020 to reach 4.3 Mtoe after a slight increase between 2015 and 2018. It declined by 1.5%/year between 2007 and 2015.
Interactive Chart Latvia Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Latvia does not have a refinery. It imports all its refined products by rail and pipeline from the Lithuanian refinery of Mazeikiai, Russia and Finland. Oil product imports dipped by 7.8%/year from 2016 to 2 Mt in 2020; imports in 2020 mainly came from Lithuania (50%), followed by Russia and Finland (both 20%).
Interactive Chart Latvia Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
The demand for oil products has been recovering slightly between 2012 and 2018 and is now decreasing, reaching 1.4 Mt in 2020. It fell before by 5.3%/year between 2007 and 2012.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Transport accounts for nearly 3/4 of oil product consumption (72% in 2020), the residential-tertiary-agriculture sector for 17% and industry for 11% (including non-energy uses).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Latvia Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Natural gas consumption decreased by 17% in 2020 to 1.1 bcm after increasing in 2018. According to preliminary estimates, gas consumption increased by 8% to 1.2 bcm in 2021. Previously, it had decreased by 5.6%/year between 2010 and 2017.
The power sector, which accounted for more than 40% of total gas consumption in 2020, is the main driver of gas demand.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Graph: GAS CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Latvia Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption has halved since 2011 (-15%/year between 2011 and 2020) after a tenfold decrease between 1990 and 2004 (reduced use for CHP and heat plants). It is now marginal in Latvia's energy mix (1%, less than 0.1 Mt in 2020).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Industry is the main consumer (80% of the demand in 2020), followed by the residential and services sectors with 13% (2020).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Latvia Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption remained broadly stable between 2013 and 2020 (6.7 TWh in 2020). It increased by 3.4% in 2021 to 6.9 TWh. It had previously soared between 2000 and 2007 (+5.7%/year, reaching 6.6 TWh).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Services dominate electricity consumption (39%). They are followed by industry (28%), households (26%), and transport 1% (2020).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
Latvia exceeded by 5 pp the target set by the European Directive as to the share of renewables in the final energy consumption (45% for a target of 40% in 2020, including 53% for electricity, 57% in heating, and 6.7% in transport). The Strategy 2030 raised this share to 50% in 2030 (same as in the NECP), including 7% in transport (of which 3.5% by advanced biofuels). By 2030, Latvia aims to generate more than 60% of its electricity and 58% of its heat from renewables.
Interactive Chart Latvia Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
Latvia issued its NDC in 2015, stating an objective of reducing GHG emissions by 55% for 2030 (compared to 1990 levels). The NECP (2020) sets a higher reduction target of 65% by 2030 compared to 1990, including a 6% cut in emissions from non-ETS activities by 2030 (compared to 2005).
Total GHG emissions (with international aviation) have been fluctuating quite a lot since 2010 between 10 and 12 MtCO2eq (10.6 MtCO2eq in 2020); they were 59% below 1990 level in 2020.
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