Estonia Energy Information
Estonia Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -3.0 %/year
Energy independence: 99.5%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 6.57 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 4.24%
* at purchasing power parity
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Estonia Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Total energy consumption per capita is about 3.3 toe/cap (2020), i.e. 13% above the EU average. This is mainly due to the high share of oil shale, since it requires a significant amount of energy to be processed: in 2019, the fall in oil shale-fired power generation resulted in a 24% fall in the energy consumption per capita. Electricity consumption is in line with the EU average (5 700 kWh, +3%).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Interactive Chart Estonia Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
All of the country's oil product consumption is imported (1.2 Mt in 2020). Gasoline imports increased to 71% and reached 690 kt in 2020, while diesel imports dipped by 2% to 798 kt. Oil products used to come mainly from Russia, which is no longer the case (32% of the imports in 2020). Besides Russia, imports came from Lithuania (35%) and Finland (18.5%) in 2020.
Interactive Chart Estonia Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil product consumption has remained stable at around 1 Mtoe since 2010. It rose very rapidly between 2000 and 2007 (3.3%/year).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Transport absorbs nearly 68% of the consumption, followed by the residential and services sector (11%) and industry (6%) (2020).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Estonia Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption has remained stable since 2015 at around 0.5 bcm. It halved between 2008 and 2015, because of the economic crisis (-32% in 2009 alone), the progressive conversion of heat producers to other fuels (especially biomass), and the closure of a large fertiliser plant in 2014.
District heating is the main natural gas consumer (32% of consumption in 2020). Nearly 1/3 of the gas (36% in 2020) is consumed by the residential-tertiary-agriculture sector (including 21% for services and 15% households) and 26% by industry.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Estonia Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Between 2018 and 2020, oil shale consumption fell by 44% to 12 Mt, mainly because of reduced consumption in the power sector). Between 2000 and 2014, this consumption grew rapidly by 3%/year and ranged between 18 Mt and 22 Mt until 2018.
In 2020, 27% of oil shale was consumed by power plants and 70% by district heating plants and liquefaction plants (to produce shale oil).
Graph: OIL SHALE CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL SHALE CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Estonia Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has been decreasing since 2019 (3%/year) after a period of slight growth starting in 2011 (1%/year).
Services account for 38% of power consumption, followed by households (26%) and industry (28%) (2020).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020,%)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The target of the EU Directive on renewables of 25% renewables in final consumption in 2020 was reached in 2011 (30% in 2020). The target of 10% in transport was reached (12.2% in 2019), with a significant rise in 2020 (+6 points).
The NECP set a target of at least 42% of renewable energy in total final consumption by 2030 (16 TWh), including 27% of renewable electricity, 69% of renewable heat, and 4% for transport.
Interactive Chart Estonia Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions (total net emissions) dropped by 23% in 2019 and by 11% in 2020 to 13 MtCO2-eq. Between 2010 and 2018, they fluctuated between 16 and 20 MtCO2-eq.
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