Estonia energy report

This analysis includes a comprehensive Estonia energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With 2019 market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.

Estonia energy report
October 2020
3 files (PDF report, 2 Excel files)
38 (Report only)

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  • Estonia aims to limit the share of oil shale in its energy consumption and power generation and to cap final energy consumption in 2020 at its 2010 level.
  • Eesti Energia accounts for over 70% of power generation, over 85% of distribution and 57% of retail sales (2018).
  • Eesti Energia is the main oil shale producer.
  • Oil shale dominates the power mix with more than 3/4 of generation.
  • Since the commissioning of a new interconnection with Finland in 2013, domestic power generation depends on Nordic hydropower import levels.
  • Estonia remains reliant on Russian gas despite the new LNG import terminal commissioned in Lithuania.
  • Estonian energy prices are lower than the EU averages (2019).
  • Electricity prices have doubled since 2000, while oil product and gas prices have more than tripled.
  • Oil shale dominates the energy mix (76% in 2015), with 2/3 used in power generation and 1/3 used to produce fuel.
  • Oil shale consumption soared (+54%) between 2000 and 2014.
  • Estonia succeeded in cutting the share of oil shale in its power mix to 70% in 2018.
  • After failing to reach an agreement with Finland, Estonia is developing several LNG terminal projects.


of primary energy consumption from oil shale in 2019


electricity imports between 2013 and 2016


target in GHG emissions between 1990 and 2030


  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Department of Energy of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications is responsible for the energy policy.

    The Estonian Competition Authority regulates the energy sector and reports to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications.

  • Energy Companies


    Four main operators are involved in the supply, trading and logistics of oil: Alexela, Vopak EOS, Scantrans (Ireland) and Eurodek (Denmark). Alexela operates two oil terminals: one in Paldiski with an oil storage capacity of about 358 000 m3 and one in Sillamäe with a storage capacity of about 506 000 m3. In 2019, Vopak sold its 1 mcm terminal in Tallinn to Liwathon.

  • Energy Supply


    Natural gas imports, which averaged 1 bcm between 2005 and 2008, fell until 2015 (471 mcm). Since then, gas imports have remained broadly stable at around 500 mcm (-8% to 463 mcm in 2019).

  • Energy Prices


    Retail fuel prices in Estonia evolve in line with global prices and have been declining since 2018, reaching €1.27€ for gasoline and €1.23€ for diesel in 2020. Prices tripled between 2000 and 2012 and contracted until 2016, before recovering until 2018. Taxes account for more than half of the price (61% for gasoline and 55% for diesel in 2020).

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita is about 3.6 toe/cap (2019), i.e. 16% above the EU average. This is mainly due to the high share of oil shale, since it requires a significant amount of energy to be processed: in 2019, the fall in oil shale-fired power generation resulted in a 24% fall in the energy consumption per capita.

  • Issues & Prospects


    Eesti Gaas expects Estonia's gas consumption to decline through 2027, due to efficiency gains in district heating and buildings, and to biomass conversions in the power and heating sectors.

Table of Contents


Download the Table of Contents

List of Graphs

Below is a list of the Estonia energy market report graphs:

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2019, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2019, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/kWh GCV)
  • GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2019, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2019 %)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2019, %)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh)
  • GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2019,%)
  • GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2019, %)
  • GRAPH 17: Oil shale consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 18: Oil shale consumption breakdown by sector (2019, %)

List of Tables

In the Estonia energy market report you will find the following tables:

  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

Data (Excel Sheet)

The Estonia energy market data since 1990 and up to 2019 is included in the Excel file accompanying the Estonia country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • Estonia Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Estonia energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The Estonia country report is complemented with a national power generation dashboard (excel file) from our Power Plant Tracker Service.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • New capacities: Current power mix, installed capacity at date, capacity under construction and under development.
  • Power Sector Performances: Historical data on installed capacity, power generation, thermal power plants inputs, average thermal power plant efficiency, CO2 emissions of the power sector, carbon factor of the power sector.


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