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Estonia energy report

Estonia energy report
3 files (PDF report, 2 Excel files)
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Estonia energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • Estonia aims to limit the share of oil shale in its energy consumption and power generation.
  • Eesti Energia dominates the power sector with 75% of generation, over 95% of distribution, and around 56% of total sales.
  • The share of oil shale in the power mix was reduced from 86% in 2010 to 54% in 2022.
  • Gas prices more than doubled in 2021 and 2022. Electricity prices were multiplied by 2.5 for industry and rose by 80% for households.
  • Oil shale dominates the energy mix (55% in 2022), with 2/3 used in power generation and 1/3 used to produce fuel.
  • The development of wind is the main priority, with a lot of offshore projects.
  • After failing to reach an agreement with Finland, Estonia is developing several LNG terminal projects.
of primary energy consumption from oil shale in 2022
electricity imports since 2017
of renewables in power mix by 2030
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Department of Energy of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications is responsible for the energy policy.

    The Estonian Competition Authority regulates the energy sector and reports to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications.

  • Energy Companies


    Four main operators are involved in the supply, trading, and logistics of oil: Alexela, Vopak EOS, Scantrans (Ireland) and Eurodek (Denmark). Alexela operates two oil terminals: one in Paldiski with an oil storage capacity of about 358 000 m3 and one in Sillamäe with a storage capacity of about 506 000 m3. In 2019, Vopak sold its 1 mcm terminal in Tallinn to Liwathon.

  • Energy Supply


    Estonia has very few conventional resources. However, the country does have important reserves of oil shale (around 50 years), peat and wood.

  • Energy Prices


    In 2023, fuel prices fell by 6% for gasoline (€1.73) and by 10% for diesel (€1.62), after rising sharply in 2021 and 2022 (by 50 and 60%, respectively). Taxes account for half of the price (40% for gasoline and 50% for diesel in 2023). Prices are 10% under the EU average.

    Prices tripled between 2000 and 2012 and then contracted until 2016, before recovering until 2018.

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita is about 3.6 toe/cap (2022), i.e. 22% above the EU average. This is mainly due to the high share of oil shale, since it requires a significant amount of energy to be processed. Electricity consumption per capita is in line with the EU average (5 800 kWh, +4%).


  • Issues & Prospects


    Eesti Gaas expects Estonia's gas consumption to decline through 2027, due to efficiency gains in district heating and buildings, and to biomass conversions in the power and heating sectors.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/kWh GCV)
  • GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2022 %)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh)
  • GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2022,%)
  • GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 17: Oil shale consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 18: Oil shale consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

The Estonia energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the Estonia country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • Estonia Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Estonia energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).