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Turkey Energy Information

Turkey Key Figures

Population: 85.4 million
GDP growth rate: 11.0 %/year
Energy independence: 29.0%

Data of the last year available: 2021
Total consumption/GDP:* 90.2 (2005=100)
CO2 Emissions: 4.94 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 10.1%

* at purchasing power parity

View all macro and energy indicators in the Turkey energy report

Turkey Related News

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Turkey Related Research

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

A data overview is available in the global energy statistics app

Total Energy Consumption

Total consumption per capita is around 1.9 toe (2021) (of which 3 300 kWh of electricity) compared to about 3.1 toe for the EU.

Interactive Chart Turkey Total Energy Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed fondamentals of the market at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the Turkey energy report

Crude Oil Production

Turkey covers only 10% of its total oil needs with a production of 4.3 Mt of crude oil (2021).

The total refining capacity of 0.8 mb/d is distributed over 6 refineries, including 2 large ones belonging to Tupras: Izmir and Izmit (0.2 mb/d each). The STAR refinery (0.2 mb/d) was completed in 2018 by Socar.

In 2021, net crude and oil product imports reached 43 Mt, just below the 2016-2019 average. The share of crude in that amount has surged to about 70% since 2019, from 50% in 2018, due to the STAR refinery starting operations.

Interactive Chart Turkey Crude Oil Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our EMEA Refineries Dataset

Oil Products Consumption

Oil consumption increased by 6% in 2021 to reach 44 Mt. It had been stable over the last three years (42 Mt in 2020), following a period of rapid growth between 2010 and 2017 (4.5%/year), driven by the transport sector.

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Interactive Chart Turkey Refined Oil Products Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our EMEA Refineries Dataset

Natural Gas Consumption

Gas consumption surged to 60 bcm in 2021, 24% higher than its 2020 level, driven by a high economic growth and a limited hydropower availability. This constitutes a second year of rebound following a substantial drop over 2018 and 2019 (-16%) as a result of successive gas price hikes during the period, combined with a lower need for power generation.

Between 2000 and 2014, gas consumption grew very rapidly (9%/year) and then started to decrease in 2015 and 2016, driven by the power sector.

Interactive Chart Turkey Natural Gas Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on the LNG trade, you can request a sample of our EMEA LNG Trade Dataset

Coal Consumption

Coal and lignite consumption rebounded in 2021 to 124 Mt, its 2019 level, following a 10% drop in 2020 due to decreased demand from power plants. Coal and lignite consumption had been rising by 8%/year over 2015-2019.

Of the total demand, 75% is used to produce electricity, 16% is consumed by industry, and the remainder is consumed by buildings.

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)

Interactive Chart Turkey Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed consumption trends at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the Turkey energy report

Power Consumption

Electricity consumption increased by 8% in 2021, reaching 284 TWh. It had been increasing slowly since 2018, following a period of very rapid growth over 2010-2018 (over 5%/year).

Buildings absorb the highest share with 52% (of which, services 27% and residential 24%), followed by industry with 43%.

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)

Renewable in % Electricity Production

The General Directorate of Renewable Energy of MENR is in charge of implementing policy on renewables.

Turkey aims to produce 50% of its electricity from renewables by 2023 (36% in 2021). The initial target of 30% set in the Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy was raised to 50% in 2018 as it was already surpassed in 2017 with 32%.

Interactive Chart Turkey Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Learn more about renewables in the European Renewable Energy Report

CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions

In its first NDC, submitted in 2021, Turkey pledges to cut its GHG emissions in 2030 by 21% below a BAU scenario. The BAU scenario leads to GHG emissions of 1 175 MtCO2eq by 2030 (173% more than in 2012, reference year). The 21% cut would limit GHG emissions to 929 MtCO2eq, which would still be more than twice the 2012 level.

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