Turkey Energy Information
Turkey Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 11.0 %/year
Energy independence: 29.0%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 4.94 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 10.1%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the Turkey energy report
Turkey Related News
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Turkey Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Total consumption per capita is around 1.9 toe (2021) (of which 3 300 kWh of electricity) compared to about 3.1 toe for the EU.
Interactive Chart Turkey Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Turkey covers only 10% of its total oil needs with a production of 4.3 Mt of crude oil (2021).
The total refining capacity of 0.8 mb/d is distributed over 6 refineries, including 2 large ones belonging to Tupras: Izmir and Izmit (0.2 mb/d each). The STAR refinery (0.2 mb/d) was completed in 2018 by Socar.
In 2021, net crude and oil product imports reached 43 Mt, just below the 2016-2019 average. The share of crude in that amount has surged to about 70% since 2019, from 50% in 2018, due to the STAR refinery starting operations.
Interactive Chart Turkey Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption increased by 6% in 2021 to reach 44 Mt. It had been stable over the last three years (42 Mt in 2020), following a period of rapid growth between 2010 and 2017 (4.5%/year), driven by the transport sector.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart Turkey Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption surged to 60 bcm in 2021, 24% higher than its 2020 level, driven by a high economic growth and a limited hydropower availability. This constitutes a second year of rebound following a substantial drop over 2018 and 2019 (-16%) as a result of successive gas price hikes during the period, combined with a lower need for power generation.
Between 2000 and 2014, gas consumption grew very rapidly (9%/year) and then started to decrease in 2015 and 2016, driven by the power sector.
Interactive Chart Turkey Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption rebounded in 2021 to 124 Mt, its 2019 level, following a 10% drop in 2020 due to decreased demand from power plants. Coal and lignite consumption had been rising by 8%/year over 2015-2019.
Of the total demand, 75% is used to produce electricity, 16% is consumed by industry, and the remainder is consumed by buildings.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart Turkey Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased by 8% in 2021, reaching 284 TWh. It had been increasing slowly since 2018, following a period of very rapid growth over 2010-2018 (over 5%/year).
Buildings absorb the highest share with 52% (of which, services 27% and residential 24%), followed by industry with 43%.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The General Directorate of Renewable Energy of MENR is in charge of implementing policy on renewables.
Turkey aims to produce 50% of its electricity from renewables by 2023 (36% in 2021). The initial target of 30% set in the Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy was raised to 50% in 2018 as it was already surpassed in 2017 with 32%.
Interactive Chart Turkey Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its first NDC, submitted in 2021, Turkey pledges to cut its GHG emissions in 2030 by 21% below a BAU scenario. The BAU scenario leads to GHG emissions of 1 175 MtCO2eq by 2030 (173% more than in 2012, reference year). The 21% cut would limit GHG emissions to 929 MtCO2eq, which would still be more than twice the 2012 level.
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