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Turkey Energy Information

Turkey Key Figures

Population: 83.6 million
GDP growth rate: 0.92 %/year
Energy independence: 31.5%

Data of the last year available: 2019
Total consumption/GDP:* 90.9 (2005=100)
CO2 Emissions: 4.48 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 11.0%

* at purchasing power parity

View all macro and energy indicators in the Turkey energy report

Turkey Related News

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Turkey Related Research

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

A data overview is available in the global energy statistics app

Total Energy Consumption

Total consumption per capita is around 1.7 toe (2019) (of which 3 080 kWh from electricity) compared to about 3.1 toe for the EU.

Total energy consumption has been stable since 2017 at around 145 Mtoe, reflecting low economic growth (1% in 2019), as well as successive price increases for gas and electricity since 2018. It had been growing at a rapid average rate of around 4%/year between 2000 and 2017. This increase was particularly sharp over 2013-2017, with an average rate of more than 6%/year.

Interactive Chart Turkey Total Energy Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed fondamentals of the market at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the Turkey energy report

Crude Oil Production

Turkey covers only 9% of its total oil needs with a production of 3.7 Mt of crude oil (2019).

The total refining capacity of 0.8 mb/d is distributed over 6 refineries, including 2 large ones belonging to Tupras: Aliaga in Izmir and Izmit (0.22 mb/d each). The STAR refinery (0.2 mb/d) was completed in 2018 by Socar.

In 2019, net crude and oil product imports reached 44 Mt (roughly stable since 2016). The share of crude in that amount surged to about 70% in 2019, from 50% in 2018, due to the STAR refinery starting operations.

Interactive Chart Turkey Crude Oil Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our EMEA Refineries Dataset

Oil Products Consumption

Oil consumption, recorded a slight decrease for the second year in a row (40 Mt in 2019), following a rapid growth period between 2010 and 2017 (4.5%/year), driven by the transport sector. It was strongly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: over the first nine months of 2020, it was 14% lower than over the same period of 2019.

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Interactive Chart Turkey Refined Oil Products Production

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on refineries, you can request a sample of our EMEA Refineries Dataset

Natural Gas Consumption

Gas consumption dropped substantially in 2018 and 2019 to 45 bcm (2019) as a result of the successive gas price hikes over 2018-2019 and of the decreasing need for power generation. Despite the COVID-19 situation, natural gas demand increased by 3.5% over the first 10 months of 2020 compared to the same period the previous year.

Between 2000 and 2014, gas consumption had grown very rapidly (9%/year) and had started to decrease in 2015 and 2016, driven by the power sector.

Interactive Chart Turkey Natural Gas Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Additionally, for more detailed information on the LNG trade, you can request a sample of our EMEA LNG Trade Dataset

Coal Consumption

Coal and lignite consumption increased by 35% between 2015 and 2019, reaching 125 Mt, driven by the rising power plant demand.

Of the total demand, 81% is used to produce electricity, 12% is consumed by industry, and the remainder is consumed by buildings.

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)

Interactive Chart Turkey Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

View the detailed consumption trends at country level (graphs, tables, analysis) in the Turkey energy report

Power Consumption

Electricity consumption has been stable in 2019, amounting to 257 TWh, following a period of very rapid growth over 2010-2018 (over 5%/year). It has only been slightly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic (1% decrease over the first 9 months of 2020 compared to 2019).

Buildings absorb the highest share with 50% (of which, services 29% and residential 21%), followed by industry with 44%.

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)

Renewable in % Electricity Production

The General Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MENR is in charge of implementing policy on renewables.

Turkey aims to produce 50% of its electricity from renewables by 2023 (44% in 2019). The initial target of 30% set in the Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy was raised to 50% in 2018 as it was already surpassed in 2017 with 32%.

Interactive Chart Turkey Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)

Benefit from up to 2 000 up-to-date data series for 186 countries in Global Energy & CO2 data

Learn more about renewables in the European Renewable Energy Report

CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions

Turkey has not yet submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Its INDC, submitted in 2015, set the objective of reducing GHG emissions by 21% in 2030 compared with a BAU scenario. This objective corresponds to a 116% increase from 2012 levels.

CO2 emissions from energy combustion remained stable in 2018 and decreased in 2019 to 374 MtCO2. They almost tripled between 1990 and 2017, driven by the strong economic growth.

Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)

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