Turkey Energy Information
2019 Turkey Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 0.94 %/year
Energy independence: 32.5%
* at purchasing power parity
CO2 Emissions: 4.52 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 12.4%
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Total Energy Consumption
Total consumption per capita is around 1.8 toe (2019) (of which 3 050 kWh from electricity) compared to about 3.1 toe for the EU.
Total energy consumption has been stable since 2017 at around 147 Mtoe, reflecting low economic growth (1% in 2019), as well as successive price increases for gas and electricity since 2018. It had been growing at a rapid average rate of around 4%/year between 2000 and 2017. This increase was particularly sharp over 2014-2017, with an average rate of more than 6%/year.
Interactive Chart Turkey Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Turkey covers only 8% of its total oil needs with a production of 3.4 Mt of crude oil (2019).
The total refining capacity of 0.8 mb/d is distributed over 6 refineries, including 2 large ones belonging to Tupras: Aliaga in Izmir and Izmit (0.22 mb/d each). The STAR refinery (0.2 mb/d) was completed in 2018 by Socar.
In 2019, net crude and oil product imports reached 43 Mt (roughly stable since 2016). The share of crude in that amount surged to about 70% in 2019, from 50% in 2018, due to the STAR refinery starting operations.
Interactive Chart Turkey Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption stabilized in 2019 at 42 Mt. It had dropped slightly in 2018, following a rapid growth period between 2010 and 2017 (4.5%/year), driven by the transport sector. It was roughly stable between 1995 and 2010, at around 30 Mt.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart Turkey Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption dropped substantially in 2018 and 2019 to 45 bcm (2019) as a result of the successive gas price hikes over 2018-2019 and of the decreasing need for gas in power generation. Previously, gas consumption had grown very rapidly between 2000 and 2014 (9%/year) and had started to decrease in 2015 and 2016, driven by the power sector.
Around 33% of the gas is used to produce electricity (2019). Buildings (households and services) recorded the largest increase (almost 8%/year since 2010) and represent 34% of the demand; industry has a 28% market share.
Interactive Chart Turkey Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal and lignite consumption increased by 33% between 2015 and 2018, reaching 123 Mt, driven by the rising power plant demand, and stabilized at 121 Mt in 2019.
Of the total demand, 79% is used to produce electricity, 14% is consumed by industry, and the remainder is consumed by buildings.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Interactive Chart Turkey Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has been stabilizing since 2018, reaching 254 TWh in 2019. This follows very rapid growth over 2010-2017 (over 5%/year).
Buildings absorb the highest share with 50% (of which, services 28% and residential 22%), followed by industry with 46%.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The General Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MENR is in charge of implementing policy on renewables.
Turkey aims to produce 50% of its electricity from renewables by 2023 (44% in 2019). The initial target of 30% set in the Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy was raised to 50% in 2018 as it was already surpassed in 2017 with 32%.
Interactive Chart Turkey Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
Turkey has not yet submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Its INDC, submitted in 2015, set the objective of reducing GHG emissions by 21% in 2030 compared with a BAU scenario. This objective corresponds to a 116% increase from 2012 levels.
CO2 emissions from energy combustion remained stable in 2018 and decreased in 2019 to 377 MtCO2. They almost tripled between 1990 and 2017, driven by the strong economic growth.
Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)
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