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- GENERAL OVERVIEW
- INSTITUTIONS AND ENERGY POLICY
- ENERGY COMPANIES
- ENERGY SUPPLY
- ENERGY PRICES
- ENERGY CONSUMPTION
- ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
- DATA TABLES
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Türkiye energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.
- The country targets a 65% share of renewables in its electricity capacity by 2035.
- It pledges to cut GHG emissions in 2030 by 41% below a BAU scenario, which would imply a level of emissions 60% higher than in 2012.
- Private companies account for almost 80% of the power capacity.
- Electricity and gas distribution is in the hand of municipal companies.
- The country is very dependent on natural gas and oil imports (99% and 91%, respectively, in 2022).
- The share of wind, solar, and geothermal in the power mix has increased by 17 points since 2010 to 19%. Generation from coal and lignite, which was growing fast until 2018, has decreased slightly since then.
- Motor fuel prices, as well as electricity and gas prices in industry, surged in 2022 (around 70% for diesel and electricity, tripling for gas).
- Energy demand is generally increasing, although much less regularly since 2017.
- Power generation absorbs a large share of coal and lignite.
- Buildings are the main gas consumers, while oil is mostly used in transport.
- Only one nuclear plant is moving forward, although talks with potential developers for a second plant have restarted.
- The solar and wind capacity is expected to increase to 53 GW and 30 GW, respectively, in 2035.
- Significant amounts of natural gas have recently been discovered in the Black Sea by TPAO.
Institutions & Energy Policy
MENR, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (ETKB in Turkish)controls the energy sector.
TEK, the Turkish Electricity Authority, which acted as the national power company until 1993, was gradually split into four companies: EUAS (Production), TEIAS (Transmission), TEDAS (Distribution), and TETAS (Marketing).
Türkiye covers only 10% of its total oil needs with a production of 4.6 Mt of crude oil (2022).
The total refining capacity of 0.8 mb/d is distributed over 6 refineries, including 2 large ones belonging to Tupras: Izmir and Izmit (0.2 mb/d each). The STAR refinery (0.2 mb/d) was completed in 2018 by Socar.
Electricity prices for industry increased by 70% in 2022 to €14.2c/kWh, in a context of high fossil fuel prices and high inflation. Household prices decreased slightly to €7.7c/kWh in 2022. Electricity prices had been decreasing slightly for 2 years, following a rise in 2019 to reflect rising costs in electricity generation. They decreased by almost 8%/year on average from 2012 to 2018.
Total consumption per capita is around 1.8 toe (2022) (of which 3 300 kWh of electricity) compared to about 3.1 toe for the EU.
Issues & Prospects
As part of its National Energy Plan 2022-2035, Türkiye aims to increase its solar energy capacity more than fivefold to 53 GW by 2035 (8 GW in 2021). Wind capacity is expected to increase nearly threefold to reach 30 GW in 2035 (11 GW in 2021). Overall, Türkiye's installed capacity is expected to increase to 190 GW in 2035 (100 GW in 2021).
- GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
- GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2022, %)
- GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
- GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2022, %)
- GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
- GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
- GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/kWh GCV)
- GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
- GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2022, %)
- GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2022, %)
- GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
- GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh)
- GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
- GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
- GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
- GRAPH 17: Coal consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 18: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
- Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
- Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
- Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
- Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
- Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.
The Türkiye energy market data since 1990 and up to
is included in the Excel file accompanying the Türkiye country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.
Key Data included in the excelsheet:
- Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
- Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
- Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
- Energy Balance: total and per energy.
- Türkiye Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Türkiye energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).
The Türkiye country dashboards are complemented with country forecasts from EnerFuture (excel file) with scenario comparison.
Data included in the excelsheet:
- Demand: Primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, by fuel, by sector.
- Power: Electricity generation & capacities, by technology.
- CO2: Total CO2 emissions.
- Macro-economy: Main macro-economic assumptions.
- Key indicators: Energy intensity, share of renewables, CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP.