South Africa Energy Information
South Africa Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 4.92 %/year
Energy independence: 100%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 7.44 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 10.1%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the South Africa energy report
South Africa Related News
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South Africa Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Total energy consumption per capita peaked in 2008 at 2.9 toe per capita and then progressively decreased to 2.3 toe in 2021 (nearly 4 times the average energy consumption per capita in sub-Saharan Africa). Electricity consumption per capita peaked at 4 500 kWh in 2007 before decreasing to 3 284 kWh in 2021 (around 10 times the sub-Saharan average).
Total energy consumption rebounded by 7% in 2021, after a 9% drop in 2020, due the impact of the COVID-19 crisis. It had increased previously by 1.3%/year between 2017 and 2019.
Interactive Chart South Africa Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Total oil production has been decreasing slightly since 2016 from 5.6 Mt to 4.9 Mt in 2021. It mostly comes from synthetic fuels, as conventional production of crude oil is marginal.
The country imported 13 Mt of crude oil in 2021 (-26%) and 13 Mt of oil products (net imports).
It has a refining capacity of 530 kb/d, with four refineries: Sapref (180 kb/d), Engen petroleum (135 kb/d), Caltex Oil (110 kb/d), and Natref (105 kb/d).
Interactive Chart South Africa Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption, which remained roughly stable at around 26 Mt between 2013 and 2019, fell by 16% in 2020 and rebounded by 4% in 2021.
Transport accounts for 65% of that consumption, followed by industry (including non-energy uses) with 18%, residential-services-agriculture (10%), and power plants. (7%).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart South Africa Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption has decreased by 2.6%/year since 2016 to 4.8 bcm in 2021 (-0.8% in 2021). Previously, it rose, despite strong fluctuations, at the average pace of 4%/year between 2004 and 2016.
Gas is mainly used to produce fuels in the gas-to-liquids plant (52%) and in industry (47%).
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Graph: GAS CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart South Africa Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal consumption bounced back by 7% in 2021 to 188 Mt, after a 7% drop in 2020. Between 2008 and 2014, coal consumption fluctuated around 190 Mt.
Power generation absorbed 58% of the coal consumed in 2021, followed by coal transformation (23%), residential and services sectors (13%), and industry (8%).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart South Africa Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption rebounded by 2.3% to 197 TWh in 2021, after decreasing by 5% in 2020. It remained stable between 2017 and 2019 at around 200 TWh and fluctuated between 207 and 216 TWh from 2010 to 2015.
Industry is the main electricity consumer (52%), followed by the residential sector (20%) and the services sector (15%).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The IRP2019 targets the addition of 16 GW of wind and solar by 2030 in relation to 2018, made up of 9.5 GW of wind and 6.5 GW of solar. Wind should account for 15.7% of installed capacity in 2030 and solar for 10.5%.
Interactive Chart South Africa Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
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CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In its updated NDC, South Africa aims to limit GHG emissions to 398-510 MtCO2eq in 2025 and to 350-420 MtCO2eq in 2030. The upper end of the 2030 target has been reduced by 32% compared to the first NDC (2015).
CO2 emissions from fuel combustion increased by 7.8% in 2021 to 395 MtCO2, 77% above the 1990 level, due to an economic rebound after the 7.7% drop in 2020 with the COVID 19 pandemic crisis. They had previously increased quickly from 2000 to a peak of 453 Mt in 2014 (+3%/year).
Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)
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