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South Africa energy report

South Africa energy report
4 files (PDF report, 3 Excel files)
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This analysis includes a comprehensive South Africa energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • South Africa has the objective to reach a net zero energy system by 2050 but currently has pressing needs to face widespread power outages.
  • Eskom dominates power generation (~85%).
  • The National Transmission Company South Africa was set up in 2021 from the legal separation of Eskom.
  • Coal still accounts for 86% of power generation. The share of CO2-free electricity has increased by 7 points since 2010.
  • Gasoline and diesel prices have increased by 55% and 75%, respectively, since 2020.
  • Electricity prices have increased by 20% since 2020.
  • Total energy consumption has been decreasing rapidly since 2016.
  • Coal dominates the energy mix (72%).
  • The country is in a national state of disaster to respond to the electricity crisis and its effects; 4 to 6 GW of power capacity are missing.
largest coal exporter in the world in 2021
wind and solar in power capacity in 2030
+6% point
increase since 2010 in share of CO2-free sources in electricity mix
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Department of Mineral Resources and Energy (DMRE) supervises the energy sector, with the objective of providing secure, sustainable, and affordable energy. It is also responsible for the promotion and regulation of minerals and mining.

  • Energy Supply


    Total oil production decreased by 10% between 2016 (5.5 Mt) and 2020 (4.9 Mt) and has remained stable since then. It mostly comes from synthetic fuels of the Secunda coal-to-liquid facility (Sasol, 150 kb/d), as conventional production of crude oil is marginal. Another plant, Mossel Bay GTL (PetroSA, 45 kb/d), is currently off due to a lack of gaseous feedstock.

  • Energy Prices


    Municipalities are in charge of setting electricity prices. They are based on the "National Retail Tariff Guideline", published by NERSA in 2004, and on the "Municipal Electricity Tariff Guidelines", which are published each year. There is a reduced tariff for the poorest part of the population ("poverty tariff").

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita peaked in 2008 at 3 toe per capita and then progressively decreased to 2 toe per capita in 2022 (over 3 times the average energy consumption per capita in the other Southern African countries: Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia).

  • Issues & Prospects


    The government seeks to diversify its energy supply mix away from coal and to resort to more gas to meet its energy consumption needs, in particular for power generation. New investments in gas infrastructure are, therefore, considered to allow more gas imports and the development of domestic shale gas resources could begin in the short term.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 8: Total consumption market share by energy (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 9: Final consumption market share by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 12: Electricity consumption (TWh)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 14: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 15: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 16: Coal consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 17: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2022, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

The South Africa energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the South Africa country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • South Africa Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the South Africa energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The South Africa country dashboards are complemented with country forecasts from EnerFuture (excel file) with scenario comparison.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Demand: Primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, by fuel, by sector.
  • Power: Electricity generation & capacities, by technology.
  • CO2: Total CO2 emissions.
  • Macro-economy: Main macro-economic assumptions.
  • Key indicators: Energy intensity, share of renewables, CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP.