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South Africa energy report

South Africa energy report
2 files (PDF report, Excel file)
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This analysis includes a comprehensive South Africa energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • South Africa targets a 29% reduction of energy consumption and a 26% share of wind and solar in the power capacity in 2030.
  • Eskom dominates power generation (~85%).
  • The National Transmission Company South Africa was set up in 2021 from the legal separation of Eskom.
  • Coal still accounts for 87% of power generation. The share of CO2-free electricity has increased by 6 points since 2010, thanks to wind and solar.
  • Gasoline and diesel prices have increased by 60% and 80%, respectively, since 2020.
  • Electricity prices increased by 25% in 2021.
  • Total energy consumption has been decreasing slightly since 2017.
  • Coal dominates the energy mix (71%).
  • The country is in a national state of disaster to respond to the electricity crisis and its effects: 3 to 4 GW of power capacity are missing.
largest coal exporter in the world in 2021
wind and solar in power capacity in 2030
% point increase in share of CO2-free sources in electricity mix
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Department of Mineral Resources and Energy (DMRE) supervises the energy sector, with the objective of providing secure, sustainable, and affordable energy. It is also responsible for the promotion and regulation of minerals and mining.

  • Energy Supply


    Total oil production has been decreasing rapidly since 2016 from 5.6 Mt, to 4 Mt, to 3.4 Mt in 2021 (-40%). It mostly comes from synthetic fuels, as conventional production of crude oil is marginal.

    The country imported 10 Mt of crude oil in 2021 (-26%) and 15 Mt of oil products (net imports).

  • Energy Prices


    The DMRE sets oil product prices through the Basic Fuel Price Formula, which notably includes international oil prices, supply and demand of petroleum products, and the ZAR/US$ exchange rate, as well as domestic factors such as transport costs, taxes, etc. The objective is to ensure the competitiveness of refiners vis-à-vis international competitors.

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita peaked in 2008 at 2.9 toe per capita and then progressively decreased to 2.2 toe in 2021 (nearly 4 times the average energy consumption per capita in sub-Saharan Africa). Electricity consumption per capita peaked at 4 500 kWh in 2007 before decreasing to 3 400 kWh in 2021 (around 10 times the sub-Saharan average).

  • Issues & Prospects


    The 3-to-4 GW of missing capacity in early 2023 is causing severe distress in households and to the economy. Already faced with this situation in 2022, Eskom implemented power cuts on more than 200 days, with record cuts of 6 to 8 hours a day for most households.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 8: Total consumption market share by energy (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 9: Final consumption market share by sector (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 12: Electricity consumption (TWh)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 14: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 15: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
  • GRAPH 16: Coal consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 17: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

The South Africa energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the South Africa country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • South Africa Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the South Africa energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The South Africa country report is complemented with a national power generation dashboard (excel file) from our Power Plant Tracker Service.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • New capacities: Current power mix, installed capacity at date, capacity under construction and under development.
  • Power Sector Performances: Historical data on installed capacity, power generation, thermal power plants inputs, average thermal power plant efficiency, CO2 emissions of the power sector, carbon factor of the power sector.