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South Africa energy report

South Africa energy report
4 files (PDF report, 3 Excel files)
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This analysis includes a comprehensive South Africa energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • South Africa has the objective to reach a net zero energy system by 2050 but currently has pressing needs to face widespread power outages.
  • Eskom dominates power generation (~80%).
  • The National Transmission Company South Africa was set up in 2021 from the legal separation of Eskom.
  • Coal still accounts for 84% of power generation but its market share is decreasing (-9 points since 2010).
  • The share of CO2-free electricity has reached 16%, more than twice the 2010 level.
  • Gasoline and diesel prices decreased slightly in 2023 after reaching a record-high level in 2022.
  • Electricity prices have increased by 29% since 2020.
  • Total energy consumption has been decreasing by 2%/year since 2019.
  • Coal dominates the energy mix (70%), but its share is decreasing (-5 points since 2020).
  • Around 10 GW of solar and wind is under development.
largest coal exporter in the world (2023)
wind and solar in power capacity in 2030
% points increase since 2010 in share of CO2-free sources in power mix
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Department of Mineral Resources and Energy (DMRE) supervises the energy sector, with the objective of providing secure, sustainable, and affordable energy. It is also responsible for the promotion and regulation of minerals and mining.

  • Energy Supply


    Natural gas production is marginal (less than 1 bcm in 2023, stable since 2021). The offshore gas reserves located in Mossel Bay (Bredasdorp Basin) were put into production in 2007 in order to supply the GTL plant of Mossel Bay (plant commissioned in 1992 as the world's first GTL refinery) but are now insufficient for the plant.

  • Energy Prices


    The DMRE sets oil product prices through the Basic Fuel Price Formula, which notably includes international oil prices, supply and demand of petroleum products, and the ZAR/US$ exchange rate, as well as domestic factors such as transport costs, taxes, etc. The objective is to ensure the competitiveness of refiners vis-à-vis international competitors.

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita peaked in 2008 at 3 toe per capita and then progressively decreased to 2.1 toe per capita in 2023 (over 4 times the average energy consumption per capita in the other Southern African countries: Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia).

  • Issues & Prospects


    There are plans to fight load-shedding, both by the ministerial (DoE) side and by Eskom, which proposed to add 8 GW of "clean energy" between 2024 and 2027: green-field renewable and gas projects, as well as coal power plant repurposing.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 8: Total consumption market share by energy (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 9: Final consumption market share by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 12: Electricity consumption (TWh)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 14: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 15: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 16: Coal consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 17: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

The South Africa energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the South Africa country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • South Africa Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the South Africa energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The South Africa country dashboards are complemented with country forecasts from EnerFuture (excel file) with scenario comparison.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Demand: Primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, by fuel, by sector.
  • Power: Electricity generation & capacities, by technology.
  • CO2: Total CO2 emissions.
  • Macro-economy: Main macro-economic assumptions.
  • Key indicators: Energy intensity, share of renewables, CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP.