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North Macedonia energy report

North Macedonia energy report
3 files (PDF report, 2 Excel files)
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This analysis includes a comprehensive North Macedonia energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • The NECP targets a share of 38% of renewables in the final consumption in 2030 and 42% in 2040.
  • ESM, a state-owned company, represents around 2/3 of total power production.
  • Most of the oil and gas supply is controlled by private companies.
  • Lignite represents more than half of the power mix.
  • The country is fully dependent on oil and gas imports.
  • Oil and gas prices follow international prices with gas prices more than doubling in 2022.
  • Since 2021, electricity prices have slightly increased for households, while industrial prices nearly doubled in 2021 and grew by 47% in 2022.
  • The energy consumption per capita is more than two times lower than the EU average.
  • Oil and lignite dominate the energy mix, with higher lignite consumption in 2022 due to high gas and electricity prices.
  • The country is developing several power and gas interconnection projects.
  • Many solar projects have been announced.
lowest energy consumption per capita in Europe
of the power mix from lignite in 2022
industrial electricity prices since 2020
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    North Macedonia (called FYROM until 2019) is a small republic resulting from the break-up of former Yugoslavia, independent since 1991. It is part of the Energy Community Treaty with the EU (along with Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro, Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine), which aims at creating a pan-European energy market.

  • Energy Supply


    North Macedonia has no oil or gas resources but has large reserves of lignite (over 330 Mt) with relatively low caloric value and a high moisture and ash content. Thanks to the mountainous relief and the abundant rainfall, the country has a high hydroelectric potential (theoretical potential is estimated at 9 TWh, compared to a production of around 1 TWh).

  • Energy Prices


    Maximum product prices are set by the ERC and are updated every week. They follow global trends, surging since 2020 (+13%/year for gasoline and +20%/year for diesel) to €1.23/l in 2022.

    Prices were around 20% lower than the EU average over 2013-2021 and 33% lower in 2022.


  • Energy Consumption

    In 2022, the country's energy consumption per capita was 1.3 toe, which is 58% below the European average, including 3 200 kWh of electricity (44% below the EU average).

    Total energy consumption recovered in 2021 (+4.2%) and 2022 (+2.8%) to 2.8 Mtoe, after an 8.7% drop in 2020. It tended to decrease between 2011 and 2018 (-2.7%/year) and rose by 9% in 2019.

  • Issues & Prospects

    According to the NECP, primary energy consumption will grow by 35% between 2017 and 2040 to 3.5 Mtoe, while final energy consumption will increase by 55% to 2.8 Mtoe.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy Emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2022 %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 8: Total consumption market share by energy (2022, %)
  • GRAPH 9: Final consumption market share by sector (2022, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator.

The North Macedonia energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the North Macedonia country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • North Macedonia Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the North Macedonia energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).