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Germany energy report

Germany energy report
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Germany energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.


  • Germany has boosted its renewable target to 80% of electricity consumption in 2030 and to 100% in 2035.
  • The country aims to reduce GHG emissions by at least 65% in 2030 compared to 1990 levels and to reach carbon neutrality by 2045.
  • RWE is the largest power generator.
  • Uniper, the third largest generator, has been nationalized due to financial difficulties following the interruption of Russian gas supply.
  • Wind and solar represented 60% of the total capacity in 2023 with 147 GW.
  • For the first time, most than half of the power mix came from renewables (55% in 2023, vs 19% in 2010).
  • The coal and lignite-fired capacity has dropped by more than 1/4 since 2015 to 37 GW.
  • The country managed to become independent from Russian oil and gas in January 2023.
  • Electricity prices for households have soared by 23% in 2023, industry prices have been converging down the European level.
  • Gas prices for households soared by nearly 40% in 2023 and by 10 in industry.
  • Coal and lignite consumption have continued to grow since 2020, as the country switched back from gas due to rising gas prices.
  • Massive power grid expansion will be key for the planned development of solar and wind by 2030 (215 and 115 GW, respectively).
  • The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has revived strong interest in LNG projects.
  • The development of hydrogen infrastructure is key for the country, which plans to add 8.8 GW of H2 plants by 2035 and to develop almost 10 000 km of hydrogen network by 2032.
renewables in power consumption by 2035
in GHG emissions by 2030
phase-out of coal
  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) oversees the country's energy policy and supervises the energy sector.

    The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMU) is responsible for climate policies and the nuclear sector.

  • Energy Supply


    Germany relies on imports for more than 96% of its crude oil supply with a declining production, which reached 2.8 Mt in 2023. Crude oil imports declined by 2%/year over 2015-2021, with a 9% rebound in 2022, and decreased further by 13% in 2023 to reach 77 Mt.

  • Energy Prices


    Since 2003, there is a €5.5/MWh eco-tax on gas. The government plans to increase the VAT rate on natural gas by the end of 2023, after it was temporarily lowered from 19% to 7% in 2022 to counter gas price hikes related the war in Ukraine. This would increase gas prices by 11%.

  • Energy Consumption

    Per capita consumption decreased further below 3 toe in 2023 (-10%), many due to a lower economy activity and warmer temperature. Per capita electricity consumption also fell to 5,465 kWh.

    In 2023, total energy consumption decreased by 9%, reaching 246 Mtoe, its lowest level since the reunification. Previously, it decreased by 1.1%/year over 2016-2019.

  • Issues & Prospects


    To face expected growth in power demand, the country aims to accelerate the development of renewables. According to the projections of BNetzA released in May 2022, electricity consumption is expected to double between 2020-2021 and 2037 (3.5 to +4.6%/year according to the scenario), reaching up to 982 TWh; and 999 TWh to 1,222 TWh by 2045.

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/kWh GCV)
  • GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh).
  • GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
  • GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • GRAPH 17: Coal consumption (Mt)
  • GRAPH 18: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2023, %)
  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.

The Germany energy market data since 1990 and up to is included in the Excel file accompanying the Germany country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • Germany Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Germany energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The Germany country dashboards are complemented with country forecasts from EnerFuture (excel file) with scenario comparison.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Demand: Primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, by fuel, by sector.
  • Power: Electricity generation & capacities, by technology.
  • CO2: Total CO2 emissions.
  • Macro-economy: Main macro-economic assumptions.
  • Key indicators: Energy intensity, share of renewables, CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP.