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- GENERAL OVERVIEW
- INSTITUTIONS AND ENERGY POLICY
- ENERGY SUPPLY
- ENERGY PRICES
- ENERGY CONSUMPTION
- ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
- DATA TABLES
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Germany energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.
- Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Germany has boosted its renewable target to 80% of electricity consumption by 2030.
- The country aims to reduce GHG emissions by 65% in 2030 and to reach carbon neutrality by 2045.
- To avoid an energy security crisis, emergency measures have extended the operation of 3 nuclear plants until April 2023 and returned to the market 10.4 GW of coal and lignite until March 2024.
- RWE is the largest power generator and produces half of the country's lignite. Uniper, the third largest generator, is going to be nationalized due to its financial difficulties following the interruption of Russian gas supply.
- Wind and solar represented 53% of the total capacity in 2021 with 119 GW.
- The share of renewables in the power mix increased by 24 points between 2010 and 2020 but dropped by 4 points in 2021 to 36%.
- The coal and lignite capacity has dropped by 20% since 2015 to around 40 GW (6 GW of which in 2021).
- The country aims at becoming independent from Russian oil and gas by end 2022 and 2024, respectively.
- The electricity price for households is more than twice as high as the industrial price and 40% above the EU average.
- Gas and electricity prices will be capped to face the surge in end-user prices following the end of gas imports from Russia.
- Coal and lignite consumption increased by 19% in 2021, as the country switched back from gas due to rising gas prices.
- 215 GW of solar are planned in 2030 as well as 115 GW of wind.
- The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has revived interests in LNG projects with 7 FSRUs operational in the first quarter of 2023.
renewables in power consumption by 2030
in GHG emissions targeted by 2030 (compared to 1990)
advanced phase-out date for coal (instead of 2038)
Institutions & Energy Policy
The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) oversees the country's energy policy and supervises the energy sector.
The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMU) is responsible for climate policies and the nuclear sector.
Germany has very limited hydrocarbon reserves which are on the decline (18 Mt of oil vs 28 Mt as of 2019, and more than 22 bcm of natural gas end of 2021). The shale gas potential is estimated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences (BGR) at between 320 bcm and 2 030 bcm. Germany's subsoil is rich in lignite, with reserves of nearly 36 Gt.
Gasoline and diesel prices are mainly driven by international crude oil prices and are in line with EU averages: in 2021, prices reached 2019 levels after a decrease in 2020. Previously, gasoline and diesel prices increased by 12% and 20%, respectively, between 2016 and 2018.
Per capita consumption is 3.5 toe (2021). Per capita electricity consumption is 6 030 kWh.
In 2021, total energy consumption increased by nearly 4%, reaching 289 Mtoe, after a significant drop (-6%) in 2020. Previously, it decreased by 1.5%/year over 2016-2019.
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Issues & Prospects
According to the projections of BNetzA released in May 2022, electricity consumption is expected to double between 2020-2021 and 2037 (3.5 to +4.6%/year according to the scenario), reaching up to 982 TWh; by 2045, it could increase by 3 to 4%/year, reaching 999 TWh to 1,222 TWh.
- GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
- GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2021, %)
- GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
- GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2021, %)
- GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (€/l)
- GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (€c/kWh)
- GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/kWh GCV)
- GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
- GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2021, %)
- GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh).
- GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
- GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 17: Coal consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 18: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
- Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
- Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
- Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
- Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.
The Germany energy market data since 1990 and up to
is included in the Excel file accompanying the Germany country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.
Key Data included in the excelsheet:
- Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
- Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
- Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
- Energy Balance: total and per energy.
- Germany Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Germany energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).
The Germany country report is complemented with a national power generation dashboard (excel file) from our Power Plant Tracker Service.
Data included in the excelsheet:
- New capacities: Current power mix, installed capacity at date, capacity under construction and under development.
- Power Sector Performances: Historical data on installed capacity, power generation, thermal power plants inputs, average thermal power plant efficiency, CO2 emissions of the power sector, carbon factor of the power sector.