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As the COP 26 begins, several countries announce new climate measures

As the COP 26 begins, several countries have announced new climate measures. Russia has approved a long-term government climate strategy targeting carbon neutrality by 2060. Under the targeted scenario, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to be reduced by 60% of the 2019 level by 2050, and by 80% of the 1990 level. The implementation of the target will require investments equivalent to 1% of the country's GDP in 2022-2030, and to 1.5-2% of GDP in 2031-2050. Russia’s energy-related CO2 emissions increased by 9% between 2016 and 2019 and dropped by 6% in 2020. Emissions in 2020 are now 26% below their 1990 level, at around 1,619 MtCO2. Russia was the fourth-largest producer of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in 2020, after China, the United States and India.

China, which aims to reach carbon neutrality by 2060, plans a 1.8% reduction in average coal use for power generation by 2025. Coal-fired power plants must lower their consumption rate to 300g/kWh of standard coal, compared to 305.5g/kWh in 2020. Coal accounts for 54% of China's installed capacity, with 1,200 GW, and for 64% of its power generation (2020). Indonesia has promised to phase out coal-fired power plans by 2040 if the country receives sufficient financial help from the international community; the country had earlier announced plans to phase out coal-fired power generation by 2056, as part of plans to reach carbon neutrality by 2060. Coal represents 52% of Indonesia's installed capacity, with 36 GW, and accounts for 62% of its power generation (2020).

Nigeria has pledged to reach net-zero emissions by 2060, betting on the use of gas until 2040 to lower its GHG emissions. In August 2021, the country had unveiled a new update of its First Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), setting an unconditional greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 20% and a conditional reduction target up to 47% of the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario by 2030. Finally, Canada has vowed to end thermal coal exports by no later than 2030. The country, which is the 7th coal exporter in the world with 28 Mt in 2020 (96% coking coal), exported less than 1 Mt of thermal coal the same year.

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