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Bulgaria Energy Information

2018 Bulgaria Key Figures

Population: 7.03 million
GDP growth rate: 3.08 %/year
Energy independence: 62.8%

* at purchasing power parity
Total consumption/GDP:* 64.9 (2015=100)
CO2 Emissions: 5.81 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 9.34%

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Bulgaria Related Research

Total Energy Consumption

Consumption per capita is 2.6 toe (16% lower than the EU average in 2018), with electricity accounting for about 4 400 kWh in 2018 (22% below the EU average).

Total energy consumption has been fluctuating around 18-19 Mt since 2014 (18 Mt in 2018, 2.5% less than in 2017). It had contracted by 2.7%/year between 2006 and 2013 (from 20 Mtoe to less than 17 Mtoe).

Bulgaria's energy intensity is one of the highest among EU countries (67% above the EU average in 2018), but it has been decreasing at twice the EU rate (-3.5%/year since 2000, compared to -1.8%/year for the UE).

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Total Energy Consumption

More research: Bulgaria energy report

Crude Oil Production

Oil production is very limited (210 kt in 2018). Imports reached 8 Mt in 2018 (-16%), including 6 Mt of crude oil and 2 Mt of oil products. Over 3/4 of crude oil imports come from Russia (76% in 2018), followed by Egypt (20%).

Bulgaria has a large refinery with a capacity of 200 000 bbl/d (10 Mt/year), located in Burgas. In 2015, Lukoil commissioned a 50 000 bbl/d (2.5 Mt/year) unit, which raised the Euro-5 diesel production by 1.2 Mt/year. Bulgaria produced 6.1 Mt of oil products in 2018 (-14% on 2017). According to preliminary estimates, production rose by 12% to 7 Mt in 2019.

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Crude Oil Production

More research: EMEA Refineries Dataset

Oil Products Consumption

Oil consumption has been increasing rapidly since 2013 (5%/year) and reached 4.3 Mt in 2018; it fell by 4.4%/year between 2006 and 2013 to 3.3 Mt. According to preliminary estimates, oil product consumption declined by 7% in 2019.

Transport absorbs around 2/3 of the oil products (66% in 2018), while industry and power plants only account for 16% and 4%, respectively.

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2018, %)

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Refined Oil Products Production

More research: EMEA Refineries Dataset

Natural Gas Consumption

Gas consumption, which had been rising by 4.9%/year between 2014 and 2017, declined by 5.8% in 2018 to 3.1 bcm and by 6.4% in 2019 to 2.9 bcm, according to preliminary statistics. Over 2002-2014, it fluctuated around 3 bcm after falling by a factor of 2 between 1996 and 2002.

The share of the electricity sector in gas consumption has decreased since 2010, from 30% to 23% in 2018. Industry remains the largest end-consumer, with a share of 44%, including non-energy uses.

Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Natural Gas Domestic Consumption

More research: EMEA LNG Trade Dataset

Coal Consumption

The consumption of coal and lignite (mainly lignite) has been fluctuating between 30 Mt and 35 Mt (except for a 40 Mt peak in 2011). It contracted by 11% in 2018 to 30 Mt (higher hydropower and nuclear generation reducing the needs for coal in the power sector) and by another 8% in 2019 according to preliminary estimates.

The electricity sector is the main consumer of coal and lignite (96% in 2018).

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption

Power Consumption

Electricity consumption increased by 2.2%/year between 2013 and 2017. It declined by 1.6% in 2018 to 31 TWh, but recovered in 2019 (+1.7% according to preliminary statistics). It increased by 2%/year between 2000 and 2008.

The residential sector is the largest electricity consuming sector (35% of total electricity consumption in 2018), followed by industry (30%) and services (28%).

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)

Renewable in % Electricity Production

The national target fixed by the EU Directive on renewables of 16% of renewables in final consumption in 2020 was exceeded in 2012 (20.5% in 2018, of which 22% for electricity, 33% for heating and cooling and 8.1% for transport).

In its NECP (2019), the country set a target of 25% of renewables in final energy consumption by 2030, including 17% for electricity, 44% for heating and cooling, and 14% for transport.

Interactive Chart Bulgaria Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)

CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions

In 2017, GHG emissions were 53% lower than their 1988 level (reference year for its Kyoto commitment of -8%). Emissions rose by 13% between 2000 and 2007 and have evolved erratically since then (62 Mt in 2017).

Ahead of the COP21, Bulgaria and other EU members announced a binding 40% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 compared to 1990 (Nationally Determined Contribution).

Energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 20% between 2007 and 2018. They had decreased by 38% between 1990 and 2000, before rising by 17% until 2007.

Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)

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