Bulgaria Energy Information
Bulgaria Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 3.08 %/year
Energy independence: 62.8%
Data of the last year available: 2018
CO2 Emissions: 5.81 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 9.34%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Consumption per capita is 2.6 toe (16% lower than the EU average in 2018), with electricity accounting for about 4 400 kWh in 2018 (22% below the EU average).
Total energy consumption has been fluctuating around 18-19 Mt since 2014 (18 Mt in 2018, 2.5% less than in 2017). It had contracted by 2.7%/year between 2006 and 2013 (from 20 Mtoe to less than 17 Mtoe).
Bulgaria's energy intensity is one of the highest among EU countries (67% above the EU average in 2018), but it has been decreasing at twice the EU rate (-3.5%/year since 2000, compared to -1.8%/year for the UE).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production is very limited (210 kt in 2018). Imports reached 8 Mt in 2018 (-16%), including 6 Mt of crude oil and 2 Mt of oil products. Over 3/4 of crude oil imports come from Russia (76% in 2018), followed by Egypt (20%).
Bulgaria has a large refinery with a capacity of 200 000 bbl/d (10 Mt/year), located in Burgas. In 2015, Lukoil commissioned a 50 000 bbl/d (2.5 Mt/year) unit, which raised the Euro-5 diesel production by 1.2 Mt/year. Bulgaria produced 6.1 Mt of oil products in 2018 (-14% on 2017). According to preliminary estimates, production rose by 12% to 7 Mt in 2019.
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption has been increasing rapidly since 2013 (5%/year) and reached 4.3 Mt in 2018; it fell by 4.4%/year between 2006 and 2013 to 3.3 Mt. According to preliminary estimates, oil product consumption declined by 7% in 2019.
Transport absorbs around 2/3 of the oil products (66% in 2018), while industry and power plants only account for 16% and 4%, respectively.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2018, %)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption, which had been rising by 4.9%/year between 2014 and 2017, declined by 5.8% in 2018 to 3.1 bcm and by 6.4% in 2019 to 2.9 bcm, according to preliminary statistics. Over 2002-2014, it fluctuated around 3 bcm after falling by a factor of 2 between 1996 and 2002.
The share of the electricity sector in gas consumption has decreased since 2010, from 30% to 23% in 2018. Industry remains the largest end-consumer, with a share of 44%, including non-energy uses.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
The consumption of coal and lignite (mainly lignite) has been fluctuating between 30 Mt and 35 Mt (except for a 40 Mt peak in 2011). It contracted by 11% in 2018 to 30 Mt (higher hydropower and nuclear generation reducing the needs for coal in the power sector) and by another 8% in 2019 according to preliminary estimates.
The electricity sector is the main consumer of coal and lignite (96% in 2018).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased by 2.2%/year between 2013 and 2017. It declined by 1.6% in 2018 to 31 TWh, but recovered in 2019 (+1.7% according to preliminary statistics). It increased by 2%/year between 2000 and 2008.
The residential sector is the largest electricity consuming sector (35% of total electricity consumption in 2018), followed by industry (30%) and services (28%).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The national target fixed by the EU Directive on renewables of 16% of renewables in final consumption in 2020 was exceeded in 2012 (20.5% in 2018, of which 22% for electricity, 33% for heating and cooling and 8.1% for transport).
In its NECP (2019), the country set a target of 25% of renewables in final energy consumption by 2030, including 17% for electricity, 44% for heating and cooling, and 14% for transport.
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
In 2017, GHG emissions were 53% lower than their 1988 level (reference year for its Kyoto commitment of -8%). Emissions rose by 13% between 2000 and 2007 and have evolved erratically since then (62 Mt in 2017).
Ahead of the COP21, Bulgaria and other EU members announced a binding 40% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 compared to 1990 (Nationally Determined Contribution).
Energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 20% between 2007 and 2018. They had decreased by 38% between 1990 and 2000, before rising by 17% until 2007.
Graph: CO2-ENERGY EMISSIONS (MtCO2)
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