Bulgaria Energy Information
Bulgaria Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 3.37 %/year
Energy independence: 64.7%
Data of the last year available: 2019
CO2 Emissions: 5.74 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 7.95%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Consumption per capita is 2.7 toe (13% lower than the EU average in 2019), with electricity accounting for about 4 400 kWh in 2019 (20% below the EU average).
Total energy consumption has been rather stable since 2014 (18.5 Mt in 2019). It had contracted by 2.7%/year between 2006 and 2013.
Bulgaria's energy intensity (at purchasing power parities) is one of the highest among EU countries (68% above the EU average in 2019), but it has been decreasing much faster than the EU rate (-3.5%/year since 2000, and -1.9%/year, respectively).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production is very limited (185 kt in 2019). Imports reached 9.2 Mt in 2019 (+15% after a 16% drop in 2018), including nearly 7.1 Mt of crude oil and 2.2 Mt of oil products. According to preliminary estimates, Bulgaria imported 4.9 Mt of crude oil and 2.1 Mt of oil products in 2020. In 2019, 65% of crude oil imports came from Russia, followed by Egypt (24%). Around 90% of oil product imports in 2019 came from three countries, namely Romania (44%), Russia (39%) and Greece (7%).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption has been increasing rapidly since 2013 (+4.6%/year) and reached 4.4 Mt in 2019; it fell by 4.4%/year between 2006 and 2013 to 3.3 Mt. According to preliminary estimates, oil product consumption declined by 9% in 2020.
Transport absorbs over 60% of the oil products consumption (64% in 2019), while industry account for 16% (including non-energy uses).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Gas consumption has declined by 5.1%/year since 2017 to 2.9 bcm in 2019. It had been rising by 4.9%/year between 2014 and 2017. According to preliminary statistics, it grew by 3.4% in 2020 to 3 bcm.
Gas consumption halved between 1996 and 2002 and fluctuated around 3 bcm over 2002-2014.
Industry remains the largest gas consumer, with a share of 40%, including non-energy uses, while the share of the power sector has decreased since 2010, from 30% to 25% in 2019.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
The consumption of coal and lignite (mainly lignite) has contracted by 9.1%/year between 2017 and 2019 to less than 29 Mt in 2019. According to preliminary estimates, it fell by 20% in 2020 (higher nuclear power generation reducing coal-fired generation, in a context of declining electricity demand).
The power sector is the main consumer of coal and lignite (93% in 2019).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption has been declining since 2017 (-0.7%/year) to 31 TWh in 2019, after an increase by 2.3%/year between 2013 and 2017. According to preliminary statistics, it declined by 1.7% in 2020.
The residential sector is the largest electricity consumer (35% of the total in 2019), followed by industry (32%) and services (28%).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2019, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The national target fixed by the EU Directive on renewables of 16% of renewables in final consumption in 2020 was exceeded in 2012 21.6% in 2019, of which 23.5% for electricity, 35.5% for heating and cooling and 7.9% for transport).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions halved between 1988 and 1999. Despite a slight increase between 2000 and 2007, emissions have averaged 60 Mt since 2009 and stood below 59 Mt in 2018, i.e. 52% below their 1988 level.
Bulgaria, as all EU members, has a binding 40% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 compared to 1990 in its NDC. Emissions should decrease by 43% for sectors under the EU ETS and by 30% for non-ETS sectors.
Energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 22% between 2007 and 2019. They had decreased by 38% between 1990 and 2000, before rising by 17% until 2007.
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