Bulgaria Energy Information
Bulgaria Key Figures
GDP growth rate: -4.4 %/year
Energy independence: 62.1%
Data of the last year available: 2020
CO2 Emissions: 5.03 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 7.84%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy Consumption
Consumption per capita is 2.5 toe (10% lower than the EU average in 2019), with electricity accounting for about 4 300 kWh in 2020 (19% below the EU average).
Total energy consumption has been rather stable since 2014, but dropped by 4% to 17.7 Mtoe in 2020, due the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Bulgaria's energy intensity (at purchasing power parities) is one of the highest among EU countries (70% above the EU average in 2020), but it has been decreasing much faster than the EU rate (-3.2%/year and -1.9%/year, respectively, since 2000).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Oil production is very limited (169 kt in 2020). As a consequence of the COVID-19 crisis, imports decreased in 2020 to 7.1 Mt (-23% in 2019 and 15% under the average over 2010-2019), including nearly 5 Mt of crude oil and 2.2 Mt of oil products (stable compared to 2019). In 2019, 65% of crude oil imports came from Russia, followed by Egypt (24%). Around 90% of oil product imports in 2019 came from three countries: Romania (44%), Russia (39%), and Greece (7%).
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption increased rapidly between 2013 and 2019 (+4.6%/year), but fell to 4.3 Mt in 2020 due to COVID-19 (-9% on 2019), especially for the hydrocarbon industry (-27%), industry (-10%), and transport (-6%).
Transport absorbs over 65% of oil product consumption (62% in 2019), while industry accounts for 16% (including non-energy uses).
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
After a 4.9%/year rise between 2014 and 2017, gas consumption declined by 5.1%/year between 2017 and 2019. In 2020, the tendency seems to be changing, with a 3.9% increase to 3 bcm. In 2021, consumption could keep rising to 3.2 bcm according to preliminary data.
Industry remains the largest gas consumer, with a share of 40%, including non-energy uses, while the share of the power sector has decreased since 2010, from 30% to 27% in 2020.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
The consumption of coal and lignite (mainly lignite) contracted by 9.1%/year between 2017 and 2019. It dropped drastically in 2020 by almost 20% (higher nuclear power generation reducing coal-fired generation, in a context of declining electricity demand).
The power sector is the main consumer of coal and lignite (90% in 2020).
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption increased by 2.3%/year between 2013 and 2017 before stabilising. In 2020, due to COVID-19, electricity consumption dropped by 5.6% to 29.8 TWh.
The residential sector is the largest electricity consumer (38% of the total in 2020), followed by industry (32%) and services (24%).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2020, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
The national target fixed by the EU Directive on renewables of 16% of renewables in final consumption in 2020 was exceeded in 2012. The share reached 23.3% in 2020, of which 23.6% was for electricity, 37.2% for heating and cooling, and 9.1% for transport.
Interactive Chart Bulgaria Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions halved between 1988 and 1999. Despite a slight increase between 2000 and 2007, emissions averaged 52 Mt between 2010 and 2019. In 2020, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, CO2 emissions were historically low (around 40 MteqCO2, 51% below 1990 levels).
Bulgaria, as all EU members, has a binding 55% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 compared to 1990 in its NDC. Emissions should decrease by 43% for sectors under the EU ETS and by 0% for non-ETS sectors compared to 2005 levels.
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