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- GENERAL OVERVIEW
- INSTITUTIONS AND ENERGY POLICY
- ENERGY SUPPLY
- ENERGY PRICES
- ENERGY CONSUMPTION
- ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
- DATA TABLES
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Pakistan energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.
- The country targets a share of 30% of wind and solar in power capacity in 2030.
- Since the war in Ukraine, gas imports are no longer considered a promising option, leading to a switch to coal.
- The public oil and gas E&P companies are planned to be privatised.
- Both state-owned companies and IPPs are active in the electricity sector.
- The share of gas in the power mix is increasing rapidly (+7 points since 2010).
- Two nuclear units of 1 GW each were commissioned in 2021 and 2022.
- Energy prices have increased strongly since 2020 (+70% for diesel and gasoline, doubling for electricity prices in industry).
- Oil and electricity prices are significantly lower than in India.
- Energy consumption is progressing by around 3%/year since 2014.
- Biomass supplies one third of total energy consumption, with a stable share since 2010.
- Households and services absorb around half of the final consumption.
- Over 20 GW of power projects are under construction.
- Pakistan plans to quadruple its domestic coal-fired capacity.
Institutions & Energy Policy
The Ministry of Energy oversees the energy sector through two divisions:the Petroleum Division, in charge of oil and gas supply, as well as of energy and mineral resources, and the Power Division. The Ministry was created in 2017 from the merger of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources and the Ministry of Water and Power.
The country has substantial hydroelectric resources with an economically exploitable potential estimated at 130 TWh, of which only around 25% is developed so far. The country also has large natural gas reserves (656 bcm end of 2021), which have been increasing recently, with a significant progression of 37% in 2020. Oil reserves are negligible (less than 535 Mbl in 2021).
The residential gas price increased from 2018 to 2021, but decreased in 2022 to 1.01c/kWh. It had been stable between 2015 and 2017.
The industrial price is 70% higher (US$2.22c/kWh in 2021). Since 2018, it has been increasing rapidly (8%/year on average). In 2019 and 2020, gas prices were increased in an effort to ease state-owned gas suppliers' deficit.
Per capita consumption is about 0.5 toe, including 536 kWh of electricity (2021).
The country's total consumption has increased rapidly since 2014 (2.7%/year). The progression was more moderate between 2008 and 2013 (1.5%/year).
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Issues & Prospects
As part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) initiative, China has pledged more than US$50bn in financial support to improve Pakistan's transport and energy infrastructure in order to end its ongoing power shortage crisis and boost trade from China's landlocked north-west region to Pakistan's Gwadar Port.
- GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
- GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2021, %)
- GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
- GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2021, %)
- GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
- GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh)
- GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh GCV)
- GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
- GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2021, %)
- GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2021, %)
- Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
- Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
- Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
- Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
- Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator.
The Pakistan energy market data since 1990 and up to
is included in the Excel file accompanying the Pakistan country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.
Key Data included in the excelsheet:
- Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
- Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
- Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
- Energy Balance: total and per energy.
- Pakistan Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Pakistan energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).