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- GENERAL OVERVIEW
- INSTITUTIONS AND ENERGY POLICY
- ENERGY COMPANIES
- ENERGY SUPPLY
- ENERGY PRICES
- ENERGY CONSUMPTION
- ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
- DATA TABLES
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This analysis includes a comprehensive Japan energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.
- For 2030, Japan targets a 46% reduction in GHG emissions and a share of renewables and nuclear in the power mix of 36-38% and 20-22%, respectively.
- Ten vertically integrated private companies account for around two thirds of the power production.
- JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy is the largest oil company, accounting for 50% of gasoline sales.
- Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas account for 70% of the gas supply.
- Japan ranks second in the world for coal and LNG imports and third for solar PV capacity.
- Carbon free sources represent 30% of the power mix.
- The price of electricity in industry is almost 30% higher than in EU countries. Electricity for households costs two twice as much as in China and South-Korea.
- Total energy consumption has been decreasing by 2.2%/year since 2010. The energy mix has remained stable in recent years.
- With ambitious objectives regarding GHG emissions and renewables, Japan will extensively reinforce its nuclear capacity and develop offshore wind.
LNG importer in the world
solar PV capacity in the world
annual decrease in energy intensity since 2010
Institutions & Energy Policy
METI, the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, oversees the energy sector through ANRE, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. ANRE has three departments: the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department, the Natural Resources and Fuel Department, and the Electricity and Gas Industry Department.
The electricity sector is dominated by 10 regional, private companies (the "Ten EPCOS"), vertically integrated and grouped together in the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC), and by J-Power. The EPCOs' monopoly in their region ended in 2016.
Japan has limited hydrocarbon resources (around 6 Mt of oil and 24 bcm of gas in 2021). ANRE estimates that the economically exploitable potential of renewable energies amounts to 38-64 Mtoe/year (including 10-21 Mtoe of solar and 7-10 Mtoe of waste); the technical potential is estimated at 127 Mtoe/year.
The average price is US$1.34/l for gasoline and US$1.16/l for diesel in 2021. These prices follow international oil prices, declining between 2012 and 2016 and increasing slightly up to 2018. Japanese customers pay one of the highest gasoline prices in the Asia Pacific region after Hong Kong. Diesel prices are about 22% higher than in China.
Energy consumption per capita was 3.2 toe in 2021. Electricity consumption per capita was around 7 600 kWh.
Total energy consumption decreased continuously between 2010 and 2020 (-2%/year) and then increased by nearly 5% in 2021, up to 404 Mtoe.
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Issues & Prospects
Using its Global Energy Forecasting Model POLES (baseline called EnerBlue 2020), Enerdata foresees the share of oil to account for 26% of the primary energy consumption by 2040, while the share of natural gas would be around 38% and the share of coal around 11%. The remainder (25%) would be covered by nuclear, renewables, and biomass.
- GRAPH 1: CO2-energy emissions (MtCO2)
- GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2021, %)
- GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
- GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2021)
- GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
- GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh)
- GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (US$c/kWh GCV)
- GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
- GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2021, %)
- GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 11: Oil consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 12: Oil consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 13: Electricity consumption (TWh)
- GRAPH 14: Electricity consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 15: Natural gas consumption (bcm)
- GRAPH 16: Gas consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- GRAPH 17: Coal consumption (Mt)
- GRAPH 18: Coal consumption breakdown by sector (2021, %)
- Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
- Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
- Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
- Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
- Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator, gas plant projects by status and operator and LNG contracts.
The Japan energy market data since 1990 and up to
is included in the Excel file accompanying the Japan country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.
Key Data included in the excelsheet:
- Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
- Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
- Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
- Energy Balance: total and per energy.
- Japan Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Japan energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).
The Japan country report is complemented with a national power generation dashboard (excel file) from our Power Plant Tracker Service.
Data included in the excelsheet:
- New capacities: Current power mix, installed capacity at date, capacity under construction and under development.
- Power Sector Performances: Historical data on installed capacity, power generation, thermal power plants inputs, average thermal power plant efficiency, CO2 emissions of the power sector, carbon factor of the power sector.