Hong-Kong energy report

This analysis includes a comprehensive Hong-Kong energy market report and updated datasets. It is derived from the most recent key economic indicators, supply and demand factors, oil and gas pricing trends and major energy issues and developments surrounding the energy industry. The report provides a complete picture of the country situation, dynamics, current issues and future prospects. With 2020 market data and continuous follow-up of markets news, this report brings clear and concise insights with which to tackle national energy challenges and opportunities. Browse the tabs below for a detailed table of contents, the list of graphs and tables, and details on the data files.

Hong-Kong energy report
September 2021
3 files (PDF report, 2 Excel files)
26 (Report only)

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  • The energy sector is fully privatised.
  • The country targets a 40% energy intensity reduction in 2025 compared to 2005.
  • CLP Holdings is the main electric utility.
  • Gas supply is monopolised by Hong Kong & China Gas.
  • Oil supply is mainly ensured by Chinese companies.
  • Hong Kong is dependent on energy imports, mostly from China.
  • Its power generation is 99% thermal
  • Power generation sourced by gas reached 71% in 2020 and coal 28%, a reversal of the situation in previous years.
  • Energy prices are much higher than in China, mainly due to a higher fuel tax.
  • The services sector consumes two thirds of electricity.
  • Gas held the largest share in total energy consumption (33%) in 2020, replacing coal (25%).
  • As part of its Climate Action Plan 2030+, the country is phasing out coal-fired power and shifting to natural gas and renewables. However, no plan to boost the development of renewables has been designed.
  • HK Electric is constructing two new CCGT units for the Lamma power station.


power capacity is held by CLP Power in 2020


share of thermal in the power mix in 2020


oil and gas imports from China


  • Institutions & Energy Policy

    The Government does not have a specific entity to control the energy sector. The responsibility for the regulation of the electricity and gas sectors is shared between several departments: the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department (and in particular the Gas Standards Office), the Treasury, and the Environmental Protection Department.

  • Energy Companies


    The distribution monopoly of gas for domestic use is held by Towngas, the shorter name of the Hong Kong and China Gas Company, (41.5% Henderson Land Development).

    Towngas has 1.9 million customers in Hong Kong. Abroad, it serves more than 31.8 million customers across 27 provinces and municipalities in mainland China (282 city-gas projects in 2020).

  • Energy Supply


    All the gas is imported by pipe from mainland China. Imports started in 1996, supplied from the LNG terminal of Shenzhen to fuel the two combined-cycle units at the Lamma power plant.

  • Energy Prices


    Power prices remained stable until 2018 for all sectors and then dropped by 20% in 2019 for households and remained quite stable in 2020 at US$13.8c/kWh. The price in 2020 for industry was rather stable (US$16.3c/kWh in 2020).

  • Energy Consumption

    Total energy consumption per capita dropped by 10% in 2020 to 1.7 toe. Per capita electricity consumption is about 5,840 kWh.

    Total energy consumption decreased by 8.5% in 2020, reaching 13 Mtoe. Previously, it had been stable since 2007.

  • Issues & Prospects


    The country's priority is to develop renewables. The ENB estimates that Hong Kong only has an achievable potential of 3-4% of total electricity consumed from wind, solar and waste-to-energy sources until 2030.

Table of Contents


Download the Table of Contents

List of Graphs

Below is a list of the Hong-Kong energy market report graphs:

  • GRAPH 1: CO2-energy Emissions (MtCO2)
  • GRAPH 2: Installed electric capacity by source (2020, %)
  • GRAPH 3: Gross power production by source (TWh)
  • GRAPH 4: Power generation by source (2020, %)
  • GRAPH 5: Gasoline & diesel prices (US$/l)
  • GRAPH 6: Electricity prices for industry and householeds (US$c/kWh)
  • GRAPH 7: Gas prices for industry and households (€c/ kWh GCV)
  • GRAPH 8: Consumption trends by energy source (Mtoe)
  • GRAPH 9: Total consumption market share by energy (2020, %)
  • GRAPH 10: Final consumption market share by sector (2020, %)

List of Tables

In the Hong-Kong energy market report you will find the following tables:

  • Economic Indicators: Annual historical data including population, GDP growth, imports and exports, inflation rate, energy security and efficiency indicators, CO2 emissions.
  • Supply Indicators: Historical data including oil and gas reserves, electric and refining capacity, energy production, power production and external trade. All are detailed by energy source.
  • Demand Indicators: Historical data including consumption per inhabitant, consumption trends, total consumption by energy source, final consumption by energy source and sector, and electricity consumption by sector.
  • Energy Balances: Single table displaying the overall energy industry balance per annum, also graphically displayed by energy sub-segment.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Covers power plant projects by energy, technology, status and operator.

Data (Excel Sheet)

The Hong-Kong energy market data since 1990 and up to 2020 is included in the Excel file accompanying the Hong-Kong country report.
It showcases the historical evolution, allowing users to easily work with the data.

Key Data included in the excelsheet:

  • Economic indicators: Annual historical economic indicators, energy security, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions.
  • Supply indicators: Annual historical reserves, capacity, production and external trade (imports(+) exports(-) balance).
  • Demand indicators: Annual historical consumption per capita, consumption trends, total consumption, final consumption (per energy and per sector) and electricity consumption total and per sector.
  • Energy Balance: total and per energy.
  • Hong-Kong Energy Prices: In addition to the analysis provided on the report we also provided a data set which includes historical details on the Hong-Kong energy prices for the follow items: price of premium gasoline (taxes incl.), price of diesel (taxes incl.), price of electricity in industry (taxes incl.), price of electricity for households (taxes incl.), price of natural gas in industry (taxes incl.), prices of natural gas for households (taxes incl.), spot price of Brent and CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion).

The Hong-Kong country report is complemented with a national power generation dashboard (excel file) from our Power Plant Tracker Service.

Data included in the excelsheet:

  • New capacities: Current power mix, installed capacity at date, capacity under construction and under development.
  • Power Sector Performances: Historical data on installed capacity, power generation, thermal power plants inputs, average thermal power plant efficiency, CO2 emissions of the power sector, carbon factor of the power sector.


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